Archive for the ‘science’ Category

Science Fiction or Just a Matter of Time? Time Travel From Ancient Mythology to Modern Science

May 14, 2014

Time travel as always caught the imagination of writers and scientist alike. Even before Einstien described the possibility in his equations . Stories of incredible events are peppered about in history often forming a mythology or merely a curiosity . In this modern age the understanding of the physics of time and the regognition that it is ‘not constant ‘ opens the possibilities of temporal interpretation quite widely .

AntiquityNOW

773px-Brown,r_time_macine60

What would it be like to travel back in time? To travel forward in time?  Remember H. G. Wells’ science fiction novella,The Time Machine,published in 1895? The book has been quite popular for more than a century and has even been made into movies.  But as you will see, there are many stories across cultures of time travelers. What is so fascinating about this concept?

AntiquityNOW’s latest entry for its newly launched Science Fiction section is a blog on time travel by Ancient Origins, an organization that “seeks to uncover…one of the most important pieces of knowledge we can acquire as human beings—our beginnings.”

AntiquityNOW and Ancient Origins, with offices in London, England and Springwood, Australia, will be partnering on blogs and educational materials.

In today’s popular culture young people are exposed to diverse ideas from numerous perspectives, both scientific and speculative. AntiquityNOW and Ancient Origins are…

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What is the economics behind printing of currency?

March 3, 2014

What is the economics behind printing of currency?.

The Challenge to Science and Society

February 4, 2014

The Challenge to Science and Society

Dear Friends,

Have you ever seen a YouTube video go viral? In just a few days, millions of people have seen it, and the information conveyed by the video becomes widespread. At The Farsight Institute, we offer one of the most unique collections of information about physical reality, science, and society that is available anywhere. The information we present in our videos and on our web site could literally change the entire planet for the better. Trouble is, not that many people are watching what we do. Yes, thousands have looked at what we do, but that is not enough to change the planet. For us to trigger a planet-wide revolution of thought requires that millions, and even billions, hear and see what we have discovered. This is where you can help. We need your humanpower. Let me explain.

Have you noticed that nearly all of the Hollywood stars have Facebook and Twitter accounts that are regularly updated so all of their fans know of their latest adventures day by day, hour by hour, minute by minute? Do you really think the stars do all of that social networking? They pay publicists to manage those things. The stars are actually off doing movies, making music, and producing content for their careers while the publicists work behind the scenes to build and maintain a fan base.

Well, we at The Farsight Institute are working as hard and as fast as we can to bring you new and cutting-edge remote-viewing research. We are an all volunteer organization, so we have no paid publicists to manage Facebook and Twitter accounts. In short, only people who intentionally seek us out ever hear of us on the web and YouTube. We need your help to do the social networking for us, and you could literally help save the planet if you assisted us in this way.

Here is the crux of the matter. Our work can only spark a revolution in thought on our planet if zillions of people see that remote viewing is a real phenomenon, and that perceptual information can be transferred across both time and space in a total violation of the “laws” of relativistic physics. We have been conducting public demonstrations of remote viewing on our web site using perfect scientific controls for years, and thousands of people have seen what we can do. But that is a drop in the bucket compared with what needs to happen. We need to conduct a major demonstration of remote viewing while the is world watching. To do this, we are trying to encourage a small group of prominent mainstream scientists and other leaders to acknowledge that remote viewing is a real phenomenon that deserves serious study. Once this happens, we will immediately organize a major demonstration of remote viewing that will rivet the world. That will change everything, literally everything…from what is taught to kids in school to how science describes physical reality, the histories of our solar system and our planet, and possibly even the existence of extraterrestrial life. Our world will no longer be the same; we will collectively experience the greatest revolution in thought the world has ever seen.

To conduct our “big demonstration” of remote viewing, we need a world that seriously wants to see what we do. But humanity is all caught up in its daily dramas, from on-going wars and economic difficulties, to the personal lives of the movie stars. Moreover, mainstream science is totally ignoring us. Mainstream science will continue to ignore us unless you cause a social networking revolution under their feet. YOU need to change the reality on our planet by spreading the word. If our stuff goes viral, many will turn their attention in our direction, and mainstream science will have to respond. We are now fully organized and ready to handle the rest. If you do your part, we will do ours.

There are several key things that you could help us publicize through social networking. For example, perhaps you could post some of these videos below on your Facebook walls as well as share them with Twitter and email. Here is a presentation of one of our scientific studies relating to the origin of the asteroid belt. Try watching it in 720p resolution.

Another thing you could help us publicize is our really interesting study investigating the existence of parallel realities. Here is a video of that project:

We also have a fascinating study of an active base on Mars. This is a must see, and here is the video.

Finally, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube connections are often best if they are entertaining. For that purpose, we have produced an off-shoot of our science work in the form of an entertaining new science fiction web series, Galactic Times: Earth Report. It is a news broadcast to the rest of the Milky Way Galaxy about events on Earth relating to remote viewing. Many find the series terribly funny even though it addresses serious science, and it is our attempt at making our science “cool” in an informative way. You can find the series at its own web site: www.farsightpresentations.com. If you could paste those videos all over your Facebook walls, and share them with Twitter and email, and watch them on YouTube, that would be a real help. Each episode is 7 to 10 minutes long. Here is the YouTube playlist:

This is just the tip of the proverbial iceberg with respect to our research into the remote-viewing phenomenon. Again, we are not asking for people to believe in what we do based on faith. All we want is a chance to demonstrate that the remote-viewing phenomenon is real in front of a world audience that is willing to watch and listen. We can only do that if you help make that a reality. If you find what we are doing important, and you want to help us, you can do it using your own computer. Social network for us. Make the revolution on our planet a reality. We are organized and ready to do our part. If you do yours, the revolution can begin.

Courtney Brown, Ph.D.
Director, The Farsight Institute
Updated 5 May 2013

http://farsight.org/DirectorLetter.html

Professor John R. R. Searl

January 6, 2014

Professor John R. R. Searl is the founder
of the Searl Effect Technology and the inventor of the Searl Effect Generator (SEG).

With our World in the midst of an emerging energy crisis along with massive and constant environmental damage from forest destruction to ever-increasing greenhouse gas emissions
of epic and catastrophic proportions.

Prof. John Searl offers a global solution that can harness economically clean, sustainable
and unlimited renewable energy.

“Nothing is impossible,

  except that the state of your mind makes it so”

Prof John R.R. Searl

The Searl Effect

An SEG video animation of the innermost set of parts assembling.

The Searl Effect was discovered by John Roy Robert Searl in 1946.

Put simply, it is a method of extracting clean and sustainable electrical energy.

The SEG consists of three fixed stator rings that are uniquely magnetized with patterns setup to generate continual motion of similarly magnetized cylindrical rotors. The magnetic rotors or rollers consist of eight segmented components made of the same four layers of concentric materials that make up the stators. The rollers have both freedom of spin and rotation around the stator which generates both mechanical and electrical power.

The SEG is an ‘open system’ of energy conversion that is in accordance with known thermodynamic laws; particularly as it may apply at the quantum level. The open energy cycle of the SEG enables it to function both as a prime mover of mechanical rotors, but more so as an electrical generator that continuously interacts and processes energy from the natural environment.

Incidental effects includes a halo of negative air ionization or plasma, vacuum by extreme electrical charge, cooling temperatures of both device and the local environment; also gravitational and inertial anomalies under specific conditions.

The Searl Effect is based on magnetic waveforms that generates a continual motion of magnetized rollers around magnetized rings.

Energy conversion while operating involves processing of random quantum fluctuations and kinetic energy within the atomic lattice into coherent currents of electron pairs formed between two-dimensional boundaries of different type materials. Therein between surface boundaries, the Quantum Hall Effect of a strong pulsing magnetic field are electron transformations (compression) that dramatically decreases the device temperature with increasing mean free paths (conductivity) due to the increase in fermion pair formations or bosons tunneling through all of the concentric material layers of the Searl Effect Generator.

Energy out of the environment is typically chaotic but pervasive at the quantum level and we all feel it in part as ambient temperatures, but this is just one source of ambient energy within the electromagnetic spectrum that is in a random state and is readily utilized by the SEG. It is in effect an unbiased solid state magnetic diode that can effectively turn ambient energy into asymmetrical electron motion out of randomness into a uniform state or non-random state of coherent currents, consisting of high velocity tunneling electrons pairs with photon like characteristics.

Searl Technology effectively utilizes quantum kinetic energy which involves the electron’s inherent ability to absorb and emit energy at the quantum level with an energy cycle that can could compared and explained in layman terms to the hydroelectric dam in principle since both are driven directly or indirectly by entropy of the sun’s radiant energy. A dam builds up potential and kinetic energy by way of cloud condensation that forms rain and fills reservoirs, but does so only after it has achieved a higher energy level by way of evaporation from ground levels. Whereas the SEG utilizes its layer of neodymium as a reservoir of electrons, Teflon layer is analogous to the dam itself, Magnetic layer as the power plant that makes useful work out of the currents and finally the copper layer that compares well to the water outlets that can be seen to jet out at the bottom of the dam; similarly the SEG ram-jets electrons out to the atmosphere. At this point, energy levels of the water jets or in the case of electrons, are kinetically reduced existing the system, but be mindful that these discharges go back to the environment to recharge. Therein, ambient energy restores their energy levels up by way of evaporation of water or as with the SEG, the uniform emission of electrons to the outside air exposes them to atmosphere’s ambient sources of energy or temperature which raises the electron’s quantum energy levels back up to natural ambient levels. Thereafter, the external sources of electrons are attracted back to the relatively positive potential of the electron depleted neodymium layer (reservoir) where the energy cycle continuously repeats. It is a process that effectively strips kinetic energy out the of electrons before they are emitted; no different in principle from the energy cycle of the hydroelectric dam where the kinetics of the water flow are harnessed. In this manner, both ways gather ambient sources of energy that can be processed and made useful for electrical applications.

The idea of utilizing unlimited sources of energy is the subject of various devices and experiments, most of which prove the existence of energy at the quantum level but not a method of creating a coherent and uniform flow of energy to produce useful electrical power. In contrast, John Searl discovered that in order to create a steady and stable flow, all the masses of the device (and the stimulating frequencies) must conform to precise values which are determined by a matrix of coherent numbers he calls the “Law of the Squares”. The SEG’s ability harness the electron’s kinetic energy itself is a unique achievement that represents a new technology working with the highest quality of energy that nature has to offer and it is clean, non-destructive, unlimited and all-pervading.

This all describes a constant source of energy that can be made to flow when the correctly proportioned masses concerned are stimulated by suitable magnetic field frequencies along with the appropriate generator design. The SEG is such a device, precisely constructed to these principles, enabling it to produce stable and useful electrical power that is scalable in size for output requirement.

The size of an SEG can range from the smallest design of about one meter in diameter of 15 kilowatt capacity (which is suitable for most households) to well over a megawatt. They can be setup in tandem to make up a power plant to supply the electrical needs of an entire city.

The Searl Technology has all the hallmarks of a world-class solution for today’s energy needs and it is expected to be the dominant form of energy production of the future.

When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that

  something is possible, he is almost certainly right.

  When he states that something is impossible,

  he is very probably wrong.”

                                                        Arthur C. Clarke (1917 – 2008), Clarke’s first law

        Searl Effect Generator (SEG)

This slow motion animation depicts the SEG fully assembled & operating.

The Searl Effect Generator (SEG) functions along the principles of a linear induction motor (LIM), but designed around a circular track for continuous motion of movable rotors. It is a magnetic prime mover of electromagnetic multi-phased cylindrical rollers over fixed stator rings and free of any mechanical wear or friction.

The SEG’s stators and rollers are magnetic components uniquely magnetized or imprinted with matching magnetic pole patterns.

While the neodymium layer serves as a source or reservoir of electroncharges that are drawn out by electromagnetic induction. These redial currents though the rollers makes for mechnical motion at right angles to both the electric and magnetic fields.

The SEG configuration of rollers in motion, cuts through the magnetic flux with a unique cycloid pattern that is superimposed over an orbit around the circumference of the stator. In this manner, each roller can also induce eddy currents of mutual induction between the copper surfaces to form a frictionless ‘magnetic bearing’ as it generates radial electrical potentials. Frictionless operation enables the SEG to operate without physical wear and thus enabling it to operate with a service expectancy of a lifetime.

Technical Definition of a Surface Operating SEG

A Plate cross-sectional view showing the four material component layers

The generator consists of three stator rings (called Plates) that are composed of four distinctively different materials concentrically layered to each other and fixed to a base. Surrounding each of the Plates is rotors (called rollers) constructed with the same materials but are free to rotate around the Plates. The inner most Plate typically has 12 rollers, 22 on the second stage and 32 on the final Plate. Surrounding the outer most rollers are conventional electromagnets, which by way of magnetic induction taps energy out of the rapid passing of magnetized rollers. These inductive pickup coils are connected in various configurations to supply AC power at a variety of desired voltage and current levels to suit residential or industrial applications.

The SEG is defined as a device constructed of 2,124 component parts that make up 3 plates and 66 roller sets. 12 of the 2,124 components make the 3 plates that act as reaction components. 2,112 components are employed to create 66 roller sets that also act as active components. Each roller set consists of 8 segments constructed from 32 components.

Each segment cannot be less than 34 grams in weight, as the law of the squares defines that value as the lowest value suitable for the reasonable generation of electricity. Therefore the smallest roller set must weigh 272 grams, making a grand total of 2,244 grams per roller set for the smallest surface bound SEG.

The SEG is a step up rotary transformer. In fact it’s a ‘three rotary transformers’ operational system, within the whole unit. The inner transformer output is fed in to the input of the second plate which increases the output of the second unit, which output feeds as an input to the final unit, thereby increasing its final output to a very high voltage. The output windings can be designed to step down the output to a standard 240 volts at the rate of about 15 Kilowatts for a home unit.

From 1946 up to 1968 the Searl Effect was referred to as magnetic bubbles in motion as it was explained in John’s early newsletters. In 1968, it became clear that these magnetic bubbles contained particles in a set manner and that there was a set pattern to how many bubbles were present in the material. Because of this finding, Searl dropped the term ‘magnetic bubbles’ and replace it with the term ‘magnetic quantum material’ and released these details in a newsletter which has since been reproduced in one of Searl’s books a few years ago. A laboratory examination also agrees that somehow the material changes its state when produced in this manner.

When the rollers are brought into close proximity to the SEG plate,

the Searl Effect resonant magnetic field causes electrons to be drawn

into and accelerated through the machine. This process is assisted by

the highly electron-attracting or capturing effect of the neodymium layer.

The unique mechanical and material arrangement of the SEG pulses the neodymium to continually release and replace the surplus electrons that provides both mechanical and electrical power.

View here a video demonstration of the unit (Courtesy of the Searl team).

This SEG mockup is a recent development towards a working prototype which demonstrates many of the core principles of the SEG in motion.

“You can not have different matter in the same space,

 but you can have different matter in different spaces at the same time,

 or have different matter in the same space at different times.”

                                                                      Prof. John R.R. Searl

The Law of the Squares

The history of Magic or Latin squares dates back thousands of years, to the pyramids of ancient Egypt, and possibly even further back to the first Chinese dynasties. In fact, today, the Chinese people still use magic squares for cutting and trimming bonsai trees to the correct mathematical ratios of nature. By understanding these natural laws, one can argue that the Universe exist according to precise mathematical laws.

The Law of the Squares (LOS) or Magic Squares is not a new technology but an old technology that’s been reborn after John Searl at a young age developed it independently and discovered his numbered matrix has three dimensional properties that can model the quantum energy states of mass in time and space.
There are three groups of squares – group one, two and three, and there can be no others. Group one squares consists of all odd numbers. All even numbers that are divisible by four are in group two. All the rest of the even numbers not divisible by four are in group three.

When the correct matrix of random numbers sum up to the same line value across, down and diagonally, then it is just as valid as the physics regarding the known laws of conservation where energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another.

The LOS matrix demonstrates these conservative laws precisely by correctly transposing the random numbers of the squares into line values that all add up to the same value in any direction results in a non-random or uniform state of summation without creating more or less value than the total sum of the cube.

LOS technology along with appropriate stimulation is a transformational solution to random quantum energy state conversion into a useful non-random (uniform) state of resonance and coherent electron motion within the atomic lattice or simply put, can form electrical currents out of chaos.

Note: The First law  of thermodynamics states that both work and heat are forms of energy, and that the total energy is conserved as the LOS matrix illustrates with its exacting summation; the SEG functions in complete accordance to this law.

Also note: Where as the Second law of thermodynamics states that in a “‘closed system” disorder grows and less energy is available for work. The SEG functions on the bases of an “open system” as is life, windmills, hydroelectric’s, solar cells, etc.

Fact of the matter is the 2nd law does NOT apply  to “open systems”; it is a typical mistake by self-proclaimed experts to say otherwise about the SEG’s energy cycle.

Square four is graphically illustrated 3 dimensionally; added in any direction sums 34.

The kernel of the square is the 2×2 cube which represents the core of the square.

Click on the image or here to view the transposition from random to uniform results.

For an SEG to work effectively, the various materials or elements must be of a specific nature, weights and dimensions. Also, it must be configured in such a way that it meets the LOS requirements with a high level of material precision based on strict mathematical design criteria.

Professor John Searl has written many books on the subject of The Law of the Squares and he uses these square matrices and their laws to construct the Searl Effect Generator. He has explained the Law of the Square’s unique properties and has traveled extensively to lectures about it at schools, conventions and universities of many countries.

The following are examples of the Truth Tables for Squares 4 thru 25;

they are excerpts from one of his series of books.

Click here to watch a video where Prof. Searl works out the Squares at the 2010 Tesla conference.

Technical Documents

Prof. John Searl’s listed series of online book parts.

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 01      SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 02

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 03      SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 04

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 05      SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 06A

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 06B    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 07

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 08      SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 09A

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 09B    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 09C

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 10      SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 11

SE ARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 12     SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 13

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 14A    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 14B

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 15A    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 15B

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16A    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16B

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16C    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16D

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16E    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16F

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16G    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16H

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16I     SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 16J

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17A    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17B

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17C    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17D

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17E    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17F

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17G    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17H

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17I     SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 17J

 

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 18      SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 18B

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 18C    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 18D

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 18E    SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 18F

SEARL TECHNOLOGY UPDATE PART 18G

 

Searl Technology: Chapter1 – DC electronics

Searl Technology: Chapter2 – DC electronics

GASLAND and the Shale gas fracking disasters,

June 6, 2013

Shale gas: Energy solution or Fracking Hell? This prospect is being touted as the next big thing in energy solutions yet the danger to the local water supply is enormous and documented. Around the UK stations are set up to test sites most unknown. What does this mean to you? These wells are pumping toxins into the ground forming cracks that allow seepage into the water supply and in some cases sending gas through your water pipes as this excellent video shows. This is incredibly dangerous and I do recommend watching this video to give you an idea of what actually is the result. Look out for Gasland 2 another expose.

Here is a animation that describes the effects of Shale gas on a community . This process is extremely destructive and services only greed. If you are unfortunate enough to be close to such a facility you should seek compensation because your property will be worthless once it starts.

Published on Jul 18, 2013
Unconventional gas exploration is threatening Britain and Ireland. Licenses and planning applications have already been granted by the Government with little or no community consultation. The scale of the industrialisation and impacts are never discussed.This film charts Doreen and John’s journey from the shock of the drill rigs arrival to the sickening realisation that their lives and the lives of their family and friends will be profoundly affected. They live in Lancashire within sight of a shale gas well that is scheduled for hydraulic fracturing.

Like Doreen and John, individuals and communities across the UK are realising that the only way to stop this industry is to inform and empower their community and stand together for a better future.

Saying “No” to unconventional gas opens up many alternatives. Saying “Yes” or doing nothing leaves us facing a future where we are still dependent on fossil fuels with polluted air and water, and thousands of leaking gas wells across the countryside.

Find out how this will affect you, your family and your community. Find out how you can take action to stop the industrialisation of the countryside, pollution of air and water and plan for a better future. You can make a difference. A strong well organised community is the best defence against this industry.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BYniYtJEeeI&feature=player_embedded

Don’t FRACK Our Future – Doreen’s Story

http://www.youtube.com

Unconventional gas exploration is threatening Britain and Ireland. Licenses and planning
The chemicals used in fracking operations, from extraction to processing, distribution, transport and waste disposal, can pollute surrounding air and water. These harmful chemicals pose serious health risks to surrounding communities, and in particular to pregnant women and children. Just some of the harmful substances commonly used in fracking include methane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes), arsenic, radium, ozone, formaldehyde, radium, radon, nitrogen oxides, methylene chloride and silica sand. These substances are associated with low birth weight, birth defects, respiratory problems, cancer and fertility problems.Link : http://ecowatch.com/2013/report-fracking-health-risks-pregnant-women-children/

The Sun is changing the rate of radioactive decay

May 27, 2013

The Sun is changing the rate of radioactive decay, and breaking the rules of chemistry. These changes at the nuclear level can have profound implications for our cells and DNA resulting in mutations of higher frequency structures within molecules of all life and minerals upon Earth.
The Sun is changing the supposedly constant rates of decay of radioactive elements, and we have absolutely no idea why. But an entirely unknown particle could be behind it. Plus, this discovery could help us predict deadly solar flares.

It’s one of the most basic concepts in all of chemistry: Radioactive elements decay at a constant rate. If that weren’t the case, carbon-14 dating wouldn’t tell us anything reliable about the age of archaeological materials, and every chemotherapy treatment would be a gamble. It’s such a fundamental assumption that scientists don’t even bother testing it anymore. That’s why researchers had to stumble upon this discovery in the most unlikely of ways.

A team at Purdue University needed to generate a string of random numbers, a surprisingly tricky task that is complicated by the fact that whatever method you use to generate the numbers will have some influence on them. Physics professor Ephraim Fischbach decided to use the decay of radioactive isotopes as a source of randomness. Although the overall decay is a known constant, the individual atoms would decay in unpredictable ways, providing a random pattern.

That’s when they discovered something strange. The data produced gave random numbers for the individual atoms, yes, but the overall decay wasn’t constant, flying in the face of the accepted rules of chemistry. Intrigued, they checked out long range observations of silicon-32 and radium-226 decay, both of which showed a slight but definite variation over time. Intriguingly, the decay seemed to vary with the seasons, with the rate a little faster in the winter and a little slower in the summer.

At first, the researchers tried to rationalize the seasonal fluctuations as the result of instrument error, perhaps caused by changing heat and humidity. But that idea fell apart when nuclear engineer Jere Jenkins noticed the decay rate of the short-lived isotope manganese-54 dropped slightly during a solar flare. In fact, the decrease began a good 36 hours before the flare occurred.

That suggests two things: one that’s theoretically puzzling, and another that’s hugely exciting from a practical perspective. If decay rates really are affected by solar flares before the flares even occur, that could provide the first truly reliable early warning system for flares. Considering severe solar flares can wreak havoc on electrical grids and even kill astronauts who aren’t properly protected, that would be a huge benefit for humanity.

But practical pluses aside, why is this happening? The seasonal fluctuations suggested the Sun could be involved somehow, and the solar flare connection confirmed it. The scientists speculated that solar neutrinos, the nearly massless particles created as byproducts of the sun’s fusing of hydrogen atoms into helium, might be causing these variations. The fact that these neutrinos pass straight through the Earth with ease fit well with the fact that the decay rates were changing even at night, when the entire planet was between the radioactive isotopes and the Sun.

Once the researchers conclusively ruled out environmental influences, that left the Sun as the only possible cause of the decay variations. They also found that the amount of change varied in time with the Earth’s orbit – the effect was greater when the orbit brought the Earth closer to the Sun and thus into contact with more neutrinos.

That’s where renowned Stanford physics professor Peter Sturrock entered the picture. Confronted with this mystery, he advised the researchers to test how the decay fluctuations correlated with the Sun’s own rotation. They found the decay rates recurred every 33 days, which didn’t quite fit with the Sun’s known surface rotation length of 28 days. But the neutrinos wouldn’t be coming from the surface – they would be coming from deep inside the core. Unlikely as it might seem, the sun’s core must be rotating a little slower than its surface, apparently once every 33 days.

All of this relies on some unlikely assumptions and the occasional bold intuitive leap, but the model they propose seems to hang together. And yet one mystery remains – how are the neutrinos managing to interact with the radioactive particles in this way? It doesn’t fit with the known behavior of neutrinos, and it opens up the very real possibility that some previously unknown subatomic particle is actually behind this bizarre effect.

As Peter Sturrock explains:

“It’s an effect that no one yet understands. Theorists are starting to say, ‘What’s going on?’ But that’s what the evidence points to. It’s a challenge for the physicists and a challenge for the solar people too. [If it’s not neutrinos,] it would have to be something we don’t know about, an unknown particle that is also emitted by the sun and has this effect, and that would be even more remarkable.”
If these new discoveries hold up, then we’ve discovered that the sun changes rates radioactive decay, that we can predict solar flares before they happen, that the sun’s core rotates slower than its surface, and maybe even that an entirely unknown particle exists and is affecting our world in a tangible way. Not a bad set of results for what was supposed to be a simple search for some random numbers.
The strange case of solar flares and radioactive elements
By Dan Stober

Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics.
This story is from the Aug. 23, 2010 issue of Stanford Report.

When researchers found an unusual linkage between solar flares and the inner life of radioactive elements on Earth, it touched off a scientific detective investigation that could end up protecting the lives of space-walking astronauts and maybe rewriting some of the assumptions of physics.

It’s a mystery that presented itself unexpectedly: The radioactive decay of some elements sitting quietly in laboratories on Earth seemed to be influenced by activities inside the sun, 93 million miles away.

Is this possible?

Researchers from Stanford and Purdue universities believe it is. But their explanation of how it happens opens the door to yet another mystery.

There is even an outside chance that this unexpected effect is brought about by a previously unknown particle emitted by the sun. “That would be truly remarkable,” said Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the sun.
Image
The story begins, in a sense, in classrooms around the world, where students are taught that the rate of decay of a specific radioactive material is a constant. This concept is relied upon, for example, when anthropologists use carbon-14 to date ancient artifacts and when doctors determine the proper dose of radioactivity to treat a cancer patient.

Random numbers

But that assumption was challenged in an unexpected way by a group of researchers from Purdue University who at the time were more interested in random numbers than nuclear decay. (Scientists use long strings of random numbers for a variety of calculations, but they are difficult to produce, since the process used to produce the numbers has an influence on the outcome.)
Image

Ephraim Fischbach, a physics professor

Ephraim Fischbach, a physics professor at Purdue, was looking into the rate of radioactive decay of several isotopes as a possible source of random numbers generated without any human input. (A lump of radioactive cesium-137, for example, may decay at a steady rate overall, but individual atoms within the lump will decay in an unpredictable, random pattern. Thus the timing of the random ticks of a Geiger counter placed near the cesium might be used to generate random numbers.)

As the researchers pored through published data on specific isotopes, they found disagreement in the measured decay rates – odd for supposed physical constants.

Checking data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island and the Federal Physical and Technical Institute in Germany, they came across something even more surprising: long-term observation of the decay rate of silicon-32 and radium-226 seemed to show a small seasonal variation. The decay rate was ever so slightly faster in winter than in summer.

Was this fluctuation real, or was it merely a glitch in the equipment used to measure the decay, induced by the change of seasons, with the accompanying changes in temperature and humidity?

“Everyone thought it must be due to experimental mistakes, because we’re all brought up to believe that decay rates are constant,” Sturrock said.

The sun speaks

On Dec 13, 2006, the sun itself provided a crucial clue, when a solar flare sent a stream of particles and radiation toward Earth. Purdue nuclear engineer Jere Jenkins, while measuring the decay rate of manganese-54, a short-lived isotope used in medical diagnostics, noticed that the rate dropped slightly during the flare, a decrease that started about a day and a half before the flare.

If this apparent relationship between flares and decay rates proves true, it could lead to a method of predicting solar flares prior to their occurrence, which could help prevent damage to satellites and electric grids, as well as save the lives of astronauts in space.

The decay-rate aberrations that Jenkins noticed occurred during the middle of the night in Indiana – meaning that something produced by the sun had traveled all the way through the Earth to reach Jenkins’ detectors. What could the flare send forth that could have such an effect?

Jenkins and Fischbach guessed that the culprits in this bit of decay-rate mischief were probably solar neutrinos, the almost massless particles famous for flying at nearly the speed of light through the physical world – humans, rocks, oceans or planets – with virtually no interaction with anything.

Then, in a series of papers published in Astroparticle Physics, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research and Space Science Reviews, Jenkins, Fischbach and their colleagues showed that the observed variations in decay rates were highly unlikely to have come from environmental influences on the detection systems.

Reason for suspicion

Their findings strengthened the argument that the strange swings in decay rates were caused by neutrinos from the sun. The swings seemed to be in synch with the Earth’s elliptical orbit, with the decay rates oscillating as the Earth came closer to the sun (where it would be exposed to more neutrinos) and then moving away.

So there was good reason to suspect the sun, but could it be proved?
ImagePeter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics. Photo by L.A. Cicero

Enter Peter Sturrock, Stanford professor emeritus of applied physics and an expert on the inner workings of the sun. While on a visit to the National Solar Observatory in Arizona, Sturrock was handed copies of the scientific journal articles written by the Purdue researchers.

Sturrock knew from long experience that the intensity of the barrage of neutrinos the sun continuously sends racing toward Earth varies on a regular basis as the sun itself revolves and shows a different face, like a slower version of the revolving light on a police car. His advice to Purdue: Look for evidence that the changes in radioactive decay on Earth vary with the rotation of the sun. “That’s what I suggested. And that’s what we have done.”

A surprise

Going back to take another look at the decay data from the Brookhaven lab, the researchers found a recurring pattern of 33 days. It was a bit of a surprise, given that most solar observations show a pattern of about 28 days – the rotation rate of the surface of the sun.

The explanation? The core of the sun – where nuclear reactions produce neutrinos – apparently spins more slowly than the surface we see. “It may seem counter-intuitive, but it looks as if the core rotates more slowly than the rest of the sun,” Sturrock said.

All of the evidence points toward a conclusion that the sun is “communicating” with radioactive isotopes on Earth, said Fischbach.

But there’s one rather large question left unanswered. No one knows how neutrinos could interact with radioactive materials to change their rate of decay.

“It doesn’t make sense according to conventional ideas,” Fischbach said. Jenkins whimsically added, “What we’re suggesting is that something that doesn’t really interact with anything is changing something that can’t be changed.”

“It’s an effect that no one yet understands,” agreed Sturrock. “Theorists are starting to say, ‘What’s going on?’ But that’s what the evidence points to. It’s a challenge for the physicists and a challenge for the solar people too.”

If the mystery particle is not a neutrino, “It would have to be something we don’t know about, an unknown particle that is also emitted by the sun and has this effect, and that would be even more remarkable,” Sturrock said.

— by Dan Stober with contributions from Chantal Jolagh, a science-writing intern at the Stanford News Service.

Here is a video produced by ‘Professor’ Marc. Published on Nov 28, 2012

Everything you wanted to know about ‘2012’ but didn’t know to ask.
I want YOUR Comments.
Heard of the Photon Belt? Pole Shift? Precession of Equinoxes? 
Nibiru, Solar Storms, The Mayan Calendar or Biblical Prophecy?

With over 30 yrs in Radio & TV Broadcasting, Boulder Professor Marc “The Arcturian”, takes you on this Galaxial Tour in:
“The Most Comprensive 60 Minutes On “2012” Ever Assembled”

Over 4G/1,200 Photos, Clips, Animations, Slides and SFX went into this video of Disneyesque Proportion even Bill didn’t know you could make when you let a deranged professor play with his PowerPoint2010 60 Day Trial Version for three months! (?)

Every Man, Woman, and Child on Planet Earth should see this…
…in the next 23 days.

[we reached the required 144,000!! TY M*]

You or someone you know wants to see this movie.

“IF Mani Narobe and I are right,…in 3-4 weeks, 
none of us may even remember this video.”

High in the Rockies, 
Marc* The Arc

May The Force Be With Us All 

The forces all life and planets are subjected too daily are enormous in scope. The Cosmos appears to run in rhythms and cycles all seemingly interactive with each other.

A recent study published today in the NewScientist, indicates a direct connection between the Sun’s solar storms and human biological effect. The conduit which facilitates the charged particles from the Sun to human disturbance — is the very same conduit which steers Earth’s weather —– The Magnetic Field. Yes, animals and humans have a magnetic field which surrounds them — in the very same way the magnetic field surrounds the Earth as a protector.

Here is what the NewScientist article says: “Many animals can sense the Earth’s magnetic field, so why not people, asks Oleg Shumilov of the Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems in Russia. Shumilov looked at activity in the Earth’s geomagnetic field from 1948 to 1997 and found that it grouped into three seasonal peaks every year: one from March to May, another in July and the last in October. Surprisingly, he also found that the geomagnetism peaks matched up with peaks in the number of mood disorders i.e. depression, anxiety, bi-polar (mood swings) and even suicides in the northern Russian city of Kirovsk over the same period.”

The connection between charged particles (solar flares, cme’s) and its effect on animals and humans was outlined extensively back in 2003 as addressed in my book ‘Solar Rain – The Earth Changes Have Begun’. This phenomenon is also captured in my published ’Equation’: Sunspots => (charged particles) Solar Flares => Magnetic Field Shift => Shifting Ocean and Jet Stream Currents => Extreme Weather and Human Disruption (mitch battros) as it refers to “human disruption”.

The NewScientist study goes on to state: “The most plausible explanation for the association between geomagnetic activity and depression and suicide is that geomagnetic storms can desynchronize circadian rhythms and melatonin production,” says Kelly Posner, a psychiatrist at Columbia University in the US. The pineal gland, which regulates circadian rhythm and melatonin production, is sensitive to magnetic fields. “The circadian regulatory system depends upon repeated environmental cues to [synchronize] internal clocks,” says Posner. “Magnetic fields may be one of these environmental cues.”

The pineal gland, which regulates circadian rhythm and melatonin production, is sensitive to magnetic fields. “The circadian regulatory system depends upon repeated environmental cues to [synchronize] internal clocks,” says Posner. “Magnetic fields may be one of these environmental cues.”

For those of you who have been following ECM over the years noticed I have added the following statement to all my newsletters, and will discuss in greater detail at scheduled conferences:

“I have begun to note it is not just the “external” (earth changes) which is shifting, but humans as well. Remember: we too have magnetic fields which surround each of us. I think it is not unrealistic to conjecture what is happening “externally” is also happening “internally”. I believe current science will acknowledge this notion, showing the Sun’s “charged particles” and its influence on Earth’s magnetic field is the impetus of change. In-like, this same causal effect occurs with human magnetic fields ushering in a change or “transition”. Perhaps this is what our Mayan elders are trying to tell us—

Schumann Resonance Properties

The spherical earth-ionosphere cavity is created by the conductive surface of the earth and the outer boundary of the ionosphere, separated by non-conducting air. Electromagnetic impulses are generated by electrical discharges such as lightning, the main excitation source, and spread laterally into the cavity. Lightning discharges have a “high-frequency component”, involving frequencies between 1 kHz and 30 kHz, followed by a “low-frequency component” consisting of waves and frequencies below 2 kHz and gradually increasing amplitude. This produces electromagnetic waves in the very low frequency (VLF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) ranges.

ELF waves at 3 Hz to 300 Hz are propagated as more or less strongly attenuated waves in the space between the earth and the ionosphere, which provides a waveguide for the signals. Certain wavelengths circumnavigate the earth with little attenuation due to the fact that standing waves are formed within the cavity, the circumference of which is “approximately equal to the wavelength which an electromagnetic wave with a frequency of about 7.8 Hz would have in free space” (König, 1979, p34). It is the waves of this frequency and its harmonics at 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 Hz that form Schumann Resonances.

On a global scale the total resonant spectrum is the effect of the global lightning worldwide which is estimated at an average of 100 strokes per second. Since there is a concentration of lightning activity during the afternoon in Southeast Asia, Africa and America there are Schumann Resonance amplitude peaks at 10, 16 and 22 UT (universal time), with activity over America around 22 UT being dominant.

There are also +/-0.5 Hz variations in the center frequency, caused by a diurnal increase in ionization of the ionosphere as a result of radiation from the sun, having the effect of reducing the height of the ionosphere at 12 local time. Another factor which influences center frequency is sunspot activity.

A Tuning Fork for Life

Although the existence of the Schumann Resonance is an established scientific fact, there are very few scientists who are aware of the importance of this frequency as a tuning fork for Life. I propose that it is not merely a phenomenon caused by lightning in the atmosphere, but a very important electromagnetic standing wave, acting as background frequency and influencing biological oscillators within the mammalian brain.

Natural electromagnetic processes in the environment (I-IV), human EEG readings in comparison. Schumann oscillations (I) and the EEG a-rhythm, as well as locally conditioned fluctuations of the electric field (II) and the EEG d-rhythm, show a noticable similarity in their temporal variation. From König, 1979.

At the time when Schumann published his research results in the journal `Technische Physik’, Dr Ankermueller, a physician, immediately made the connection between the Schumann resonance and the alpha rhythm of brainwaves. He found the thought of the earth having the same natural resonance as the brain very exciting and contacted Professor Schumann, who in turn asked a doctorate candidate to look into this phenomenon. This candidate was Herbert König who became Schumann’s successor at Munich University. König demonstrated a correlation between Schumann Resonances and brain rhythms. He compared human EEG recordings with natural electromagnetic fields of the environment (1979) and found that the main frequency produced by Schumann oscillations is very close to the frequency of alpha rhythms.

Dr König carried out further measurements of Schumann resonance and eventually arrived at a frequency of exactly 7.83 Hz, which is even more interesting, as this frequency is one which applies to mammals. For instance, septal driving of the hippocampal rhythm in rats has been found to have a minimum threshold at 7.7 Hz (Gray, 1982).

This relationship has been explored by a number of investigators. For further information see Natural electromagnetic fields research on the h.e.s.e. project website.

One of the foremost researchers in this field is Dr Wolfgang Ludwig, who has been investigating Schumann Resonance and its place in nature for many years.

The Research of Dr Wolfgang Ludwig

It was Dr Wolfgang Ludwig who carried out further measurements whilst writing his thesis on the Schumann Resonance. His aim was to measure what kind of natural signals actually exist in a healthy environment. He became aware of the fact that due to manmade electromagnetic signals within the atmosphere, the accurate measurement of Schumann waves was almost impossible in the city. For this reason he decided to take measurements out at sea where, due to good electrical conductivity, the Schumann waves are stronger. He than had the idea to take underground measurements in mines. Here he recognized that the magnetic field of the earth fluctuated too. This was also investigated by Dr Robert Becker in his book `Electricity and Vitality: The spark of Life’.

Dr Ludwig came up with an excellent idea to take accurate measurements. When taking measurements at the earth’s surface, the reading is the result of two signals, one coming from above and one from below. But subsequently taking measurements below ground makes it possible to come up with exact readings by separating the two.

YIN and YANG

During his research Dr Ludwig came across the ancient Chinese teachings which state that Man needs two environmental signals: the YANG (masculine) signal from above and the YIN (feminine) signal from below. This description fits the relatively strong signal of the Schumann wave surrounding our planet being YANG and the weaker geomagnetic waves coming from below, from within the planet, being the YIN signal

The Chinese teachings state that to achieve perfect health, both signals must be in balance. Dr Ludwig found that this is indeed the case. He writes in his book `Informative Medizin’ that research carried out by E.Jacobi at the University of Duesseldorf showed that the one sided use of Schumann (YANG) wave simulation without the geomagnetic (YIN) signal caused serious health problems. On the other hand, the absence of Schumann waves creates a similar situation. Professor R.Wever from the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology in Erling-Andechs, built an underground bunker which completely screened out magnetic fields. Student volunteers lived there for four weeks in this hermetically sealed environment. Professor Wever noted that the student’s circadian rhythms diverged and that they suffered emotional distress and migraine headaches. As they were young and healthy, no serious health conditions arose, which would not have been the case with older people or people with a compromised immune system. After only a brief exposure to 7.8 Hz (the very frequency which had been screened out), the volunteers health stabilized again.

The same complaints were reported by the first astronauts and cosmonauts, who, out in space, also were no longer exposed to the Schumann waves. Now modern spacecrafts are said to contain a device which simulates the Schumann waves.

All the aforesaid points to the fact that the ancient teachings are correct. Mankind depends on two subtle environmental signals, the Yin from below and the Yang from above.

The urgent need for further research into the Schumann Resonance Effect

Although Schumann Resonance could easily be confirmed by measurements at the time of its discovery, it is no longer so obvious due to our atmosphere being filled with manmade radiation noise at different frequencies. This is almost drowning out the natural signals – signals that have been there through aeons of evolution. It is possible that these signals act like a natural tuning fork, not just for the biological oscillators of the brain, but for all processes of life.

With the advent of new wireless technology, in particular microwaves pulsed at frequencies close to Schumann Resonance as in mobile telephony, another threat is emerging. We may be creating an environment that is literally `out of tune’ with Nature itself. And it is at this point that there is an urgent need for us to understand how everything alive responds to the most subtle changes in magnetic and electromagnetic fields surrounding us. For instance, we need to examine the possible interaction between magnetite crystals within cells and manmade magnetic fields in the environment.

There is a great need for independent research into the bio-compatibility between natural and manmade signals. By linking together the potential importance of Schumann Resonance and the dangers posed by manmade pulsed frequencies, it will become apparent that unless we find a way to use bio-compatible signals to power new technology, we may expose all life to dangers previously not encountered. We may have to pay a high price for this shortsightedness. Serious attention must now be paid to the possible biological role of standing waves in the atmosphere, so that we do not overlook the importance of oscillations in nature that may be central to consciousness and life itself.

The late Dr Neil Cherry, a fierce opponent of the frequencies used in mobile telephony, has also focused on the importance of Schumann Resonance in his publications ‘Schumann Resonances, a plausible biophysical mechanism for the human health effects of Solar/Geomagnetic Activity’ (2002), and ‘Human intelligence: The brain, an electromagnetic system synchronised by the Schumann Resonance signal’ (2003).

Pyramidal Structures

May 25, 2013

the pyramids

Pyramidal Structures

We use to imagine that the only Pyramids in the World where only the ones found in Egypt. These days we know there are many more scattered about the world. They have been attributed to the reign of the great Kings of Egypt as we may realize though maybe this structure is much more mysterious than we think. As Graham Hancock argues:

“Although it has long been commonly agreed or believed that Egypt’s 4th Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu built the Pyramid as a tomb for himself, these facts are not universally accepted, as great controversy surrounds both its age and purpose-controversy born of persistent legends that the Pyramid was built to memorialize certain knowledge and preserve it from the world-wide destruction wrought by the Great Flood.

John Greaves, a seventeenth century English astronomer and mathematician, who had traveled to Egypt to measure its ancient buildings, including the Pyramid, for the purpose of learning Egypt’s ancient system of measures, which were reportedly based on the dimensions of the Earth, was the first European in modern times to systematically investigate it. He later published his findings, which excited great interest amongst scholars, including Sir Isaac Newton, who was searching for accurate measurements of the Earth for his theories regarding gravity. Greaves entered the Pyramid, but found it empty and learned that it had been empty for centuries, ever since the 8th century Abbasid Caliph Abdallah al-Mamun had tunneled his way into it. Al-Mamun was looking for the knowledge that the Pyramid reportedly held and particularly for knowledge of the Earth and its dimensions, but apparently he, too, found the Pyramid empty. If the Pyramid had held anything, whatever it was had been removed long before al-Mamun’s time. Only the legends of its contents remained and these Greaves dutifully recorded during his visit, as did others who came after him.

The legends all told essentially much the same story: an ante-diluvian king foresaw in a dream that a huge celestial body would fall to the Earth, and would cause fire and flooding world-wide that would destroy much of the Earth. On awakening, the king consulted with his counselors, who faithfully took measurements of the heavens and proclaimed that the king’s premonition was indeed true: the Earth would be destroyed. With the time remaining, the king set about building the pyramids, including the Great Pyramid, in order to preserve that portion of the accumulated knowledge of mankind deemed worth saving against the pending destruction, including the secrets of geometry and astronomy, star charts, and celestial spheres and terrestrial globes, as well as iron that wouldn’t rust and malleable glass. The focus of this legendary knowledge on the heavens is readily apparent, as might be expected in view of the fact that it was the source of Earth’s pending destruction. However, there is no record-even in the legends-that any of this material was ever found in any of the pyramids and so the legends have invariably been dismissed as little more than fanciful tales.

Curiously, archaeological excavations over the past century have revealed that a number of ship-shaped, stone-lined pits had been dug near the Great Pyramid. These excavations have also revealed the existence of two complete, but dismantled ships that had been buried in sealed chambers next to the Pyramid. One of the dismantled ships was subsequently removed and patiently reassembled, and then placed on exhibit in a specially designed building next to it, where today it is one of the most interesting attractions on the Giza plateau. The Pyramid’s maritime connections are obvious. It is a connection that clearly harks back to a time long before modern astronomy became a highly specialized science, when only two groups of people watched the heavens regularly and studied the stars intently: mariners and priests-the heaven gazers. The priests had an interest in the heavens for time keeping and calendar tracking purposes, which were directly related to their observance and practice of prescribed religious rites and to their commemoration and celebration of the calendar’s religious festivals. Mariners, on the other hand, watched the heavens to help them to navigate to distant lands, as well as to mark the passage of time. The two groups obviously must have been deeply dependent upon one another, with the knowledge and experience gained by the one systematically advancing that of the other, to the benefit of both. It was a symbiotic relationship that would endure for thousands of years.

But what does this have to do with the legends? Everything, because it leads to the door to the surprising truths behind some of the legends of the Great Pyramid, and the key that unlocks this door is to be found in the customary and most fundamental procedure of celestial observation, as practiced by both priests and mariners from time immemorial. This procedure, which precisely affixes the location of a given heavenly body in the celestial firmament, is performed by measuring its angle of altitude above the horizon and its angle of azimuth along the horizon east or west of true north or south. (See following graphic of celestial dome, with measures of altitude and azimuth enumerated.) This key reveals the celestial spheres of the legends, which were coded into the stones of the walls of the King’s Chamber in the Great Pyramid. But why, you might ask, were the spheres coded in this manner? Because measures of altitude and azimuth are based on number and geometry, which give form to a universal language that transcends both time and circumstance and is known to all men-the language of mathematics. The architects of the Great Pyramid were speaking to the ages when they designed this chamber and the wealth of information that was so cleverly coded into it.” (Link) http://www.grahamhancock.com/forum/FordR1.php

1. The Great Pyramid (known as that of Khufu/Cheops) contains no Pharaoh’s body, no treasure chamber, and no treasures. There is no indication that it ever has contained these things. The popular myth of the Pyramids being royal tombs is clearly nonsense. The tombs archaeology has accepted – those in the Valleys of the Kings and Queens –are obviously tombs, storehouses of the Pharaoh’s earthly riches, intricately prepared to ensure his survival in the next world. The Great Pyramid contains none of the obvious trappings of a tomb.

2. The only reason it is known as the Khufu/Cheops Pyramid at all is due to some Victorian graffiti! When Colonel Howard Vyse blasted his way into the Great Pyramid he was determined to make his name as an Egyptologist. He longed for nothing more than to make some monumental discovery which would make him famous. His disappointment at finding the Pyramid empty was too much for him to bear – it was his last season in Egypt – and in the dead of night it is said that he crept up into the ‘air shafts’ (known as ‘spirit stones’ to the Egyptians) above the King’s Chamber and daubed some hieroglyphs in red paint. The following morning he made his ‘discovery’ and subsequently earned his place in the history books as being the man who discovered the identity of the owner of the Great Pyramid!

It is worth mentioning in addition that the symbols he painted were not even accurate ones for the period in which the Pyramid was then believed to have been built. The symbol for ‘Ra’ – chief amongst the Egyptian gods at that time – was depicted wrongly. Now surely if an Egyptian had painted that symbol he would have got it right! Not to do so would have been a grave insult to the most highly respected and feared of the Egyptian pantheon.

The Alignment of the Pyramids also conform to celestial phenomena as this illustration shows:

standing structures

Here is a  link to some observations: http://www.cheops-pyramide.ch/khufu-pyramid/pyramid-alignment.html

 

Pyramidal Structures Near Western Cuba

Pyramids under the waters of Cuba were discovered by two scientists Paul Weinzweig and Pauline Zalitzki. They found the ruins of ancient buildings for about a mile below the sea and considered them to be Atlantis.

Paulina found elsewhere in Cuba ancient descriptions and symbols that was identical to those on the waterfront structures below.

The two scientists used submarines to found tremendous pyramid structures (that reminds one of Giza in Egypt), built of stones weighing hundreds of tons.

They found sphinxes, stones that arranged like Stonehenge, and a written language engraved on the stones.

Why it was not discovered before?

The U.S. government discovered the alleged place during the Cuban missile crisis in the sixties, Nuclear submarines cruising in the Gulf (in deep sea) met pyramid structures. They immediately shut down the site and took control of him and the objects,in order that it will not come to Russians hands.

A whistleblower from the army,that used to serve in Montego Bay said they are still working on the site and recover objects and instruments (including those who still work) since the 60′s.

This area in Cuba was above water 10,000 years ago…

The Morien Institute interviews Dr. Weinzweig and you can read this HERE 

Additional links:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klRbcEnLPbU

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hk6SWtumdK0&feature=related

source: http://www.utaot.com/2012/09/24/pyramid-structures-near-western-cuba/

The Pyramids of Faroe Islands

The pyramid shaped mountain is called Kirvi and the top of it is called Kirviskollur. You can also see the to top of Beinisvørð to the left in the photo. Beinisvørð is a 469 m high birdcliff. It is absolutely worth a visit.

Kirvi is a mountain in Suðuroy, near the village Lopra. Kirvi is 236 meter high. The mountain is visible from the villages Lopra and from Nes, which is between Vágur and Porkeri. The mountain is located in the municipality of Sumba.

source: http://www.utaot.com/2012/09/21/the-pyramids-in-faroe-islands/

Indonesia

The Gunung Padang Pyramid


Slowly but surely the mystery of the “pyramid” in Gunung Padang, Cianjur, West Java, is beginning to unravel. One by one, researchers claim to have found evidence that the pyramid-shaped mountain is man-made, and not a natural formation.

Radar imaging shows that the mountain hides enclaves of rock that resemble shrines. If this hypothesis is correct, then the building that has been forgotten for decades will allegedly defeat the discovery of the pyramids in Egypt.

Tempo Magazine in its edition dated August 27, 2012, tracked the mystery of the Gunung Padang site. The age of the “pyramid” is estimated at 4,700-10,900 BC. Compare this to the age of the Giza pyramids in Egypt, which is only 2,500 BC old. But the research is limited still. That is why geologists continue to be skeptical about the “pyramid” is. Too early to be announced.

Gunung Padang became the talk of the town the Ancient Catastrophic Team conducted a study on Cimandiri quake fault, about four miles to the north of the site. The team was formed by Special Staff of the President to the Social and Natural Disasters Assistance Andi Arief.

The controversy erupted after Andi announced early last year that there was some kind of a pyramid under Gunung Padang. “Whatever the name or shape, it’s clear there hollows thereunder,” said Andi. “At a glance, it doesn’t look like a mountain, more manmade.”

His suspicion started because the shape of the mountain was nearly like a triangle when viewed from the north. The team earlier also found a similar form on Gunung Sadahurip in Garut and on Bukit Dago Pakar in Bandung expert while researching the Lembang fault.

Andi Arief says the work of his team at Gunung Padang is almost finished. When it comes to excavation, however, he gave up because it will cost a huge amount. “That is Arkenas’ job,” he said.

http://www.tempointeractive.com/hg/nasional/2012/08/28/brk,20120828…

Posted by tatooke on September 12, 2012 

GLR ANdReA's picture

By GLR ANdReA – Posted on 12 September 2012

Java, Indonesia

Candi Sukuh

 
 

Not a lot is known about this site, except that it has the only pyramidal temple in Southeast Asia, and dates to 1416 – 1459 AD. As well as bearing an uncanny resemblance to Central American pyramids, there is also a twin-headed serpent, as discussed in Chapter XX.

China

Xian was for a long time the capital of Ancient China. It has become a popular tourist destination for Westerners since the discovery of the “Terracotta Warriors”. The evidence of local pyramids is scant, due to the Chinese Government and its ‘forbidden zones’ surrounding the city of Xian in the Shensi Province. These zones are off-limits to foreigners, probably due to military and/or space program bases in the area. Within these zones there are possibly 100 pyramids, and some adventurers have managed to photograph a few them:

The black and white photo was taken by James Gaussman, an American pilot, at the end of WW II (the others are by Mr Hausdorf).

These are not stone pyramids, nor earth mounds, but a combination of the two – made of earth and clay, shaped like pyramids with flattened tops (the same technique as Teotiuhuacan). It is rumoured that in recent times the Chinese Government ordered the planting of trees on the pyramids as a way of disguising them as regular hills, or at least their making their shape harder to discern. New Zealand author Bruce Cathie sought information on their exact locations, so he could fit them into his Harmonic Grid. After initially denying their existence outright, the Chinese officials eventually conceded that there are some “trapezoidal tombs” [i] .

According to Hartwig Hausdorf [ii] , they differ in size from between 25 to 100 metres in height, with the exception of one, the Great White Pyramid. It is situated to the north, in the valley of Qin Lin, and is possibly the world’s largest pyramid, with an approximate height of 300 metres (twice the size of Egypt’s largest).

Update! – In 2004 Chris Maier studied satellite images of the Xian region, found the same pyramids as Hausdorf, and then went there and took a look. Turns out that they are not in a “forbidden zone”, are quite well known, and any tourist can take a look, or even climb the biggest pyramid for free! Read his article

Update! – In 2002-2007, Emperor Qin Shihuang’s tomb (home of the terracotta warriors) was proven (using radar and other remote sensing technologies) to be more than a earth mound – underneath the dirt is a four-sided, nine-stepped pyramid, very similar to those in Central America. Read more at Channel 4, and China.org – the image below is the shape they believe the pyramid takes.

Russia – Brat & Sestra, nr Nakhodka

320 metres high each, they were until recently in a military zone. Today they are being mined (or could that be a cover for treasure hunting?) – which explains why the top has been removed from one of them. More at Flip Coppins site

Korea

Andong step pyramid, is the best one of pyramids survived being undestroyed in South Korea, is located at soktapri, andong, korea, in the northern valley of Mt. Hakka, 30 km road away from Andong. 13.2 meters by 12.7 meters square and about 4.5 meters high

Tahiti

When Captain Cook visited Tahiti, he described the Marae of Mahaiatea as having a stepped pyramid with a base of 259 by 85 feet. Unfortunately all that remains today is a pile of stones. This drawing comes from the 1799 book The Voyage of McDuff.

Western Samoa

On the island of Savai’i you can find Polynesia’s largest ancient structure, the Pulemelei Mound. The Lonely Planet guide for Samoa describes it:

This large pyramid measures 61 metres by 50 metres at the base and rises in two tiers to a height of more than 12 metres. It is almost squarely oriented with the compass directions.. Smaller mounds and platforms are found in four directions away from the main structure. There is a relatively large platform about 40 metres north of the main pyramid and connected to it by a stone walkway.

Unfortunately the jungle there is almost uncontrollable. The pyramid has been cleared on several occasions, but when I studied it in 1996 it was overgrown and difficult to locate. So much so, that it was only when I kicked a stone embedded in the top platform did I realise I had found it! The bottom right corner of the photo is the pyramid. UPDATE: Since 2002 the site has been cleared and studied by experts. New pictures and information.

Bosnian Pyramids

Bosnian p

 
http://www.semirosmanagic.com/en/lectures.html

In the spring of 2006 five pyramids had been found in central Bosnia in the town Visoko. The biggest is the Pyramid of the Sun with height of 220 metres. Other pyramids are also huge. The Bosnian pyramids don’t look like the Egyptian pyramids. Scientists and researchers from Egypt, Austria, England, Russia, Croatia and other countries join to Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramids of the Sun Foundation to find the truth about builders and meanings of the mysterious pyramids in Bosnia and Herzegovina… >>>

The list of articles about the Bosnian Pyramids:
Impressions of the Bosnia Pyramids—From One American’s Point of View By Sharon Prince Wothke

Official website: http://www.bosnianpyramidofthesun.com

Italy
Montevecchia 
located about 40 km northeast of Milan and about 15 km south of Lecco in Lombardy/Italy there is a small village with 3 pyramid shaped hills. These hills in Montevecchia were discovered in 2003 by the Italian architect Vincenzo DeGregorio.
Read more on European Pyramids

Three pyramidal hills near Florence

14 km south of Florence/Tuscany there are 3 hills near the city of PONTASSIEVE (meaning: bridge over the river Sieve). These hills rise approx.140 m high from elevation 130 m to 270 m. The orientation is N-S/E-W with their edges. They stand in the so-called Orion formation, which means the geometrical pattern is equal to the Belt Stars of Orion. No excavation has been conducted so far. But the area of Pontassieve is well known for its prehistoric finds. There has been a paleolithic settlement dated to 25000 BC.
Read more on European Pyramids
Greece
In Greece, there are now 16 catalogued pyramids. Though some may be natural, others—like the Hellinikon pyramid near the village of Argolis—are clearly man-made structures. Intriguingly, one thermo-luminescence test by the Academy of Athens has dated the structure to 2720 BC, contemporaneous with the Egyptian pyramid age. Though pyramidal in shape, the Greek structures do not enthral like the Egyptian pyramids, which dwarf them in size. Read more on European Pyramids

Pyramids of Tenerife island

There is a huge lava stone complex with 6 pyramids, partially reconstructed, in the town of Güimar on Tenerife. Discovered by Thor Heyerdahl in 1999 and turned into a museum with archaeological park.
Read more on European Pyramids

Slovenia
In Maribor, northern Slovenia close to the Austrian border, a hill named Piramida (elevation 386m, height from base to top appr.80m) overlooks the city and has once served as lookout post for the defence of the city. Two more hills, called Kalvarija and Mesti Vrh, of similar height and aligned with Piramida stand next to it. Read more on European Pyramids

Source: http://www.world-pyramids.com/world.html

Notes on China

Pyramids and pyramidal structures are a worldwide phenomena, found in Egypt, Peru, Central America, America’s Mississippi Valley, France, Polynesia. Now we can add two more locations, China and Japan.For decades, one of the few clues that China has pyramids was a grainy, black and white photo of a huge, shadowy, pyramidal form. It is an aerial shot, taken by WWII USAF pilot James Gaussman, as he flew over China delivering supplies from India to Chungking, in the spring of 1945. (See article below)Today, thanks to German researcher and author Hartwig Hausdorf, we have many more photos, plus videotape and his eyewitness report of at least a hundred pyramids in China’s Shensi Province. An e-mail message hooked me up with Hausdorf. By telephone and fax, we’ve been corresponding, and he was kind enough to send me two of his books in German. (Will someone please publish his books in English so I can read them?) My friend Jo Curran, fluent in German, read me selected portions of Satellites of the Gods for this article. Hausdorf’s other book is entitled The White Pyramid. Hausdorf will be a guest on The Laura Lee Show, the Saturday Night radio show I host, on August 2nd. Here’s what I can say thus far.

Hausdorf came by his invitation to Xian, China, and the Chinese pyramids, when he attended a lecture by Erich von Daniken. A personal friend who wrote the foreword to one of his books, von Daniken was the first to bring the ancient astronaut theory to worldwide prominence through a series of popular books. It was at this lecture that he met Chen Jianli. They talked about Hausdorf’s research dealing with mysterious artifacts in China, including pyramids. Mr. Chen was born in Xian, and so, despite the official party line, did not consider pyramids in China to be nonsense; as a young boy, he had heard people talk of them. Through his connections in the Chinese capitol, Mr. Chen obtained a special permit for Hausdorf to travel in Xian’s forbidden zones. Not once, but twice; in March and October of 1994.

The Chinese don’t like to talk about their pyramids. Hausdorf couldn’t help but notice that, in talking with high ranking archeologists at the Beijing Academy of Sciences about these pyramids, the reaction was one of panic. Only when shown the Gaussman photo would they reluctantly confirm the existence of just a few pyramidal structures, near Xian. That’s where Hausdorf found, not a few pyramids, but ninety to one hundred such structures. There are signs that that attitude is changing. The October 1996 issue of China Today, an official periodical issued in Chinese, German, English, Arabic and French, contains an article about Hausdorf’s second expedition through the Shensi pyramids.

It was there that Hausdorf found pyramids either made of, or covered with, clay that has become nearly stone-hard over the centuries. They are undecorated, and partly damaged by erosion and farming. A few have carved stones standing in front of them. What of stone pyramids? That is found in Shandong. It has no steps. It is 50 feet tall, with a small temple at its apex, designed along the golden proportion.

How old are these pyramids? Prof. Wang Shiping of Xian estimates they are 4,500 years old. Hausdorf believes they are older, and tells of the diaries of two Australian traders. They were there in 1910 or 1912 and came across some of the pyramids, writes Hausdorf. When asking an old Buddhist monk, they were told, that the pyramids are not just mentioned in the 5,000-year-old records of his monastery, but said to be very old. That means, they are at least more than 5,000 years old!

In investigating what the Chinese authorities will reveal about the pyramids, Hausdorf was told the story of an emperor, Qin Shi Huangdi, who lived between 259 and 210 B.C. Prior to his reign, bitter feuding between rival states for dominance over a splintered China went on from 475 to 221 B.C. It was Emperor Huangdi who ended the fighting. And thanks to the commentaries of historian Sima Qian, who lived from 145 to 86 B.C., we know the existence and location of the emperor’s grave, beneath a hill 150 feet tall, planted with grass and trees. The hill, apparently, is man-made. According to Sima, beneath this hill is a 140-foot-tall pyramid with five terraces. The historian’s chronicles state that almost 700,000 workers worked on this tomb. The earth was removed down to ground water level. The floor was then poured with molten bronze. On this platform a stone sarcophagus was laid. When the structure was completed, those who knew where the entrance was were silenced; they were entombed alive. To further disguise it, the pyramid was carefully covered with earth and grass to give the impression of a natural hill.

The pyramid’s interior was quite elaborate. Sima wrote of an artificial universe painted with stars impressed upon the ceiling of the chamber in which the emperor lies. There was an entire landscape with rivers made out of mercury, somehow held in constant motion. The tomb is well protected against grave robbers, utilizing quite an ingenious security system. Crossbows with mechanical triggers make up an automatic shooting gallery, with a hail of arrows targeting intruders. For a long time, these historical commentaries were considered as mere legends. But new excavations around the outer perimeter of this hill seemed to confirm Sima’s chronicles, an analysis of the earth from the immediate area of the great pyramid revealed an exceptionally high concentration of mercury. It would seem the archeologists are taking the stories seriously, as they are reticent to work around this ancient emperor’s high-security tomb. We are leaving this tomb under the hill to the future, so the next generation has something to work on, says one of the leading archeologists.

Still, this emperor lived two thousand, not five thousand years ago, so such stories of elaborate tombs cannot explain all of China’s pyramids. This is the only one that they can pin with a date and a purpose. The others are complete mysteries.

Wang Shiping is one of the Chinese archeologists looking beyond the standard issue explanations. He has found that one of the newly discovered pyramids is very nearly located at the exact geographical middle point of the country, and concludes that the ancient Chinese must have had astounding methods of measuring. He has also found that on the whole, the pyramids are oriented towards the stars. Which makes sense, after all, some of the oldest records of astronomical observations are Chinese. They were also wise to the ancient knowledge of Feng Shui, geomancy, still practiced today. Wang notes that the orientation of the pyramids up to the time of the Han dynasty, is with their main axis east-west. After that, they were all oriented north-south. Why that is, he cannot say, but is sure it must have a meaning, because the Chinese didn’t do anything without consulting the Feng Shui.

Hausdorf also tells the story of how our astronauts saw these pyramids from space. On one of the Apollo Missions, an astronaut, while in orbit over China, saw nine unusual dots on the surface, and took several photos. When developed and enlarged, the photos revealed nine very high pyramids, evenly spaced, in the form of a fan. The location, 170 degrees, 39 minutes East longitude, and 34 degrees, 9 minutes North latitude, is the Taibai Shan Mountain, just over 10,000 feet above sea level, the highest point in the Quin-Ling Mountains, a fair distance southwest of Xian.

In the 1970s, when communication between the U.S. and China improved, the astronaut went to China. He was interested in seeing those pyramids up close. He succeeded. Chinese authorities told him the pyramids were the graves of nine of the eleven emperors of the western Han era, and dated from 206 to 8 B.C. The height of these graves, according to Chinese sources, can be compared to a 40-story building, around 300 feet. This is comparable to Egypt’s Giza pyramids.

I’ll wager that when mapped, those Chinese pyramids are bound to show a correlation of constellations important to the Chinese, similar to that demonstrated by Robert Bauval in Egypt, the three pyramids of Giza are aligned to one another and to the Nile, in imitation of the three belt stars of the constellation Orion, and historically, as they were aligned to the Milky Way.

Hausdorf’s work in the travel industry allows him to move around the world three months of every year, chasing down evidence in support of the ancient astronaut theory. He has turned up evidence for an ancient, alien influence on several Far-East cultures, Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan, and Mongolian. He believes that alien influence can be traced to the present, to modern-day UFO cases. In both his books, he has a chapter on UFO cases in China, including abductions. (Nice to know the UFOnauts aren’t just harassing Americans.)

One of the most controversial stories is what Hausdorf calls the Chinese Roswell. It involves a UFO crash, not in 1947, but, according to estimates, 12,000 years ago! At least that’s the translation, as read by Prof. Tsum Umnui, of the strange heiroglyph on artifacts found in 1938 by Chinese archeologist Chi Pu Tei. The heiroglyphs wind from center to rim on some of the large granite stone disks, 716 of them, found in graves in the Bayan-Kara-Ula mountains. The skeletons in the graves measure at most four feet four inches tall, with heads too big for the frail looking bones. Legends in the area tell of strange yellowish, skinny humanoid beings with big heads that came from the heavens a long, long time ago. For the rest of this story, and there’s plenty more to it, tune in to the interview with Hausdorf on August 2.

Then there are the structures found recently off the coast of Japan. In the spring of 1995, divers looking for clear water heard about a remote island in Okinawa. There they came across huge stone terraces, cut in right angles, punctuated by perfect staircases, precisely cut lanes, and hexagonal columns. So far, five separate sites on three different islands have been found, all 60 to 75 feet under the sea.

Frank Joseph, author of Lost Pyramids of Rock Lake and editor of Ancient American magazine, went to Japan to investigate, and reports that the most accessible site is 170 meters from the southwest end of Okinawa, off the shore near Chatan. Other sites are just off the shore of Aguni Island and Yonaguni Island, where a pyramidal platform 80 meters long and 20 meters high, with its tip only 5 meters below the sea’s surface, was found. The structures, spread over a 500 kilometer area, seem to be oriented due south.

Joseph likens the sites to the pre-Inca city of Pachacamac, a huge, sacred city with multi-stepped pyramids built at right angles, located just outside of Lima, Peru, and the architecture of the Moches ceremonial center near Trujillo, Peru.

Joseph also points out that James Churchward, who wrote extensively about Mu or Lemuria, predicted that remnants of a powerful civilization centered in the Pacific Ocean would eventually be discovered. The Japanese are quite open to theories involving Mu; it is compatible with their own ancient traditions. And Joseph believes it is not mere coincidence that the names of Japan’s first emperors contain a mu,; Jimmu, Timmu, Kammu, are but a few. Mu translates to that which does not exist in Japanese.

Edgar Cayce talks more about Atlantis than Mu, says Joseph, but he did say that at one time, a land mass, and he never referred to Mu or Lemuria as a continent, always a land mass, was physically connected to South America. We now have scientific verification of this. Scripps Oceanographic has just put out a map of the topography of the ocean, and there, off the coast of Peru, is a sunken archipelago, called the Nasca Rise, that was once above water. Today it is less than a hundred feet below the ocean’s surface, and extends for several hundred miles.

The ancient Chinese also seemed to know about Mu. In 1900 a Taoist monk came across a cave containing a library, hidden away to avoid the Imperial edict given in 212 BC to destroy all texts dealing with the ancient past, which made reference to the Motherland, Mu, and which contained a fragment of an ancient map depicting a continent in the Pacific Ocean.

Television and magazines in Japan have had a field day with their underwater cities. Ancient mysteries researcher and translator Shun Daichi sent me a videotape with serious and extensive TV coverage that included a large, beautifully executed scale model of one of the most impressive structures, with a toy boat suspended by a wire to illustrate the height of the sea’s surface. Shun reports that you can draw a straight line connecting the underwater sites with on-land sites of similar design, ancient castles of unknown origin. Some geologists are surmising that the last time this area was above water was a minimum of 12,000 years ago, when the Ice Age ice sheets melted, raising the ocean levels.

Which leads me to two of the most puzzling questions I have about these extraordinary archeological wonders: Why, in the age of instantaneous global communication, did it take two years for the news to reach us, and why haven’t American news reports or archeological institutes reported on these newsworthy finds?

by Laura Lee @ http://www.timstouse.com/EarthHistory/Lemuria/chinapyramids.htm

This long-forgotten pyramid recently was
snapped from the air by army photographers
in a remote region of western China.
Col. Maurice Shehan, Far Eastern director of
Trans-world Airlines, was among the first to
report the phenomenon.

Aerial view of the Chinese Xianyang pyramid

image credit: http://www.pakalertpress.com/2012/02/24/report-area-51-builds-massive-alien-pyramid/

Meso-American

This is a list of Mesoamerican pyramids or ceremonial structures. There are hundreds of these done in many different styles throughout Mexico and Central America. These were made by several pre-Columbian cultures including the OlmecsMayaToltecs, and Aztecs.

Altun Ha Belize.jpgAltun Ha Belize Maya 16 200 to 900 CE

Caracol-Temple.jpgCaracol Belize Caana Maya A triadic pyramid, the highest man-made structure in Belize
Caracol Belize Temple of the Wooden Lintel Maya
 High Temple Lamanai 1.jpgLamanai Belize The High Temple  Maya   Pre-Classic Period
 Lamanai 3.jpgLamanai Belize  The Temple of the Jaguar  Maya  Pre-Classic Period
Lubaantun-structure.jpgLubaantun Belize Maya   730 to 890 CE Lubaantun’s structures are mostly built of large stone blocks laid with no mortar, primarily black slate rather than the limestone typical of the region.
Lubantuun black slate.jpgLubaantun Belize Maya   730 to 890 CE Lubaantun includes many small step pyramids as well as the larger one.
Nim Li Punit Belize Maya  400 to 800 CE Nim Li Punit has several small step pyramids.
Xunantunich main temple.jpgXunantunich Belize El Castillo Maya  600 to 900 CE  
Piramide5 campana sanandres.jpgSan Andrés, El Salvador  the Bell of San Andrés Maya   600 to 900 CE  This is a scale model of structure 5. There are several other smaller structures that may be similar to pyramids on the site.
 Templo tazumal.jpgTazumal El Salvador Maya   250 to 900 CE 
Aguateca-plaza.jpgAguatecaGuatemala Maya 760 to 830 CE This temple pyramid was left unfinished when the city was abandoned.
Dos PilasGuatemalaLD-Maya  after 629 CE This pyramid’s main stairway (known as Hieroglyphic Stairway 2) contains at least eighteen hieroglyphic steps.
Dos PilasGuatemalaEl DuendeMaya   after 629 CE This temple pyramid was built by enlarging and terracing a natural hill some way from the site core, giving the impression of a single massive structure.
KaminaljuyuGuatemala Maya   250 CE Kaminaljuyu contains some 200 platforms and pyramidal mounds at least half of which were made before 250 CE. Some of these were used to hold temples on top.
El MiradorGuatemalaLa DantaMaya  300 BCE to 100 CE La Danta pyramid temple has an estimated volume of 2,800,000 cubic meters which makes it one of the largest pyramids in the world.
Mixco Viejo.jpgEl MiradorGuatemalaEl TigreMaya  300 BCE to 100 CE   Mixco ViejoGuatemala Maya   1100 to 1500 CE  
 Tikal Temple1 2006 08 11.JPGTikal Guatemala Maya   
CopanRuins.jpgCopán Honduras Maya     Copán has several overlapping step-pyramids.
Bonampak pyramid.jpgBonampak MexicoThe Temple of the Murals Maya   580 to 800 CE  
Calakmul MexicoThe Great Pyramid Maya
 Chichen Itza 3.jpgChichen ItzaMexicoEl Castillo Maya
Cholula Pyramid.jpgCholula MexicoThe Great Pyramid of CholulaXelhua 300 BCE – 800 CE The largest pyramid and the largest manmade monument anywhere in the world.
Coba Nohoch Mul-27527.jpgCoba MexicoThe Nohoch Mul pyramidMaya  500 to 900 CE  
 Coba Group Pyramid-27527.jpgCoba MexicoLa IglesiaMaya  500 to 900 CE 
Coba Crossroads Temple.jpgCoba MexicoCrossroads TempleMaya   500 to 900 CE
Comalcalco Templo 1.JPGComalcalco MexicoTemple  Maya  600 BCE to 900 CE The city’s buildings were made from fired-clay bricks held together with mortar made from oyster shells. The use of bricks at Comalcalco was unique among Maya sites, and many of them are decorated with iconography and/or hieroglyphs.
El Tajín Pyramid of the Niches.jpgEl Tajín MexicoPyramid of the Niches  Classic Veracruz 
La Venta Pirámide cara sur.jpgLa Venta MexicoThe Great Pyramid Olmec    This is one of the earliest pyramids known in Mesoamerica. It was made out of an estimated 100,000 cubic meters of earth fill.
LaReforma1.JPGMoral-Reforma MexicoConjunto Maya
  Palenque tall temple stairs.jpgPalenque Mexico Temple of the CrossMaya
  Palenque temple 1.jpgPalenque Mexico Temple of the InscriptionsMaya
Pyramid of Santa Cecilia.jpgSanta Cecilia Acatitlan Mexico Aztec     In 1962, the architect and archaeologist Eduardo Pareyon Moreno reconstructed and reinforced the pyramid’s basement and rebuilt the temple that crowns it.
Tenayuca.jpgTenayuca Mexico Aztec    This is the earliest example yet found of the typical Aztec double pyramid, which consists of joined pyramidal bases supporting two temples.
ScaleModelTemploMayor.JPGTenochtitlan MexicoTemplo MayorAztec  1390 to 1500 CE Tenochtitlan was destroyed by the Spanish. Recreations of this and other pyramids are based on historical text and archaeological ruins.
TenochtitlanModel.JPGTenochtitlan Mexico Aztec   1325 to 1521 CE Tenochtitlan was destroyed by the Spanish. Recreations the city are based on historical text and archaeological ruins. This site once included at least half a dozen pyramids.
Piramide del Sol 072006.JPGTeotihuacan MexicoPyramid of the SunTeotihuacano 2 A.D. There are also dozens of platforms 4 stories high lining the Avenue of the Dead at Teotihuacan. These each step in each story and they have a stair way to the top in front of the platforms.
Piramide de la Luna 072006.jpgTeotihuacan MexicoPyramid of the MoonTeotihuacano  2 A.D.
Panorámica de la zona arqueologica de Tula.JPGTula, Hidalgo Mexico Toltec
Uxmal Pyramid of the Magician.jpgUxmal Mexico Pyramid of the MagicianMaya
La Gran Pyramide.jpgUxmal MexicoLa Gran Pyramide Maya
Xochicalcotempleofinscriptions.jpgXochicalco MexicoTemple of the Feather Serpent    200 BCE to 900 CE 
Mexico xochicalco pyramids.JPGXochicalco Mexico     200 BCE to 900 CE This is one of several other step-pyramid temples in addition to the Temple of the Feather Serpent
Xochitecatl MexicoThe Pyramid of Flowers   the Preclassic Period
Xochitecatl MexicoThe Spiral Building    700 BCE This is a circular stepped pyramid. The interior of the structure consists of volcanic ash. The building has no stairway giving access to the top, it was climbed by following the spiral form of the building itself.
Yaxchilan 1.jpgYaxchilan Mexico Maya   600 to 900 CE This is one of the pyramids on the upper terrace of Yaxchilan
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mesoamerican_pyramids

Egyptian

Giza

Giza, on the southern outskirts of Cairo is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the “Great Pyramid” and the “Pyramid of Cheops”), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren), and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as “queens” pyramids, and the Sphinx. The Giza necropolis has arguably been the world’s most popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularized in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of the ancient Wonders still in existence.

Sakkara

Major pyramids at Sakkara include the Step Pyramid of Djozer – the world’s oldest monumental stone building – the Pyramid of Userkaf and the Pyramid of Teti. Also at Sakkara is the Pyramid of Unas , which retains a causeway that is amongst the best preserved in Egypt. This pyramid was also the subject of one of antiquities’ earliest restoration attempts, conducted under the auspices of one of the sons of Ramses II. Sakkara is also the location of the incomplete step pyramid of Djozer’s successor Sekhemkhet . Archaeologists believe that had this pyramid been completed it would have been larger than Djozer’s.

Abu Sir

There are a total of seven pyramids at this sight, which served as the main royal necropolis during the Fifth Dynasty. The quality of construction of the Abu Sir pyramids is inferior to those of the Fourth Dynasty – perhaps signaling a decrease in royal power or a less vibrant economy. They are smaller than their predecessors, and are built of low quality local limestone. The three major pyramids are those of Niuserre (which is also the most intact), Nferirkare and Sahure . The sight is also home to the incomplete Pyramid of Neferefre . All of the major pyramids at Abu Sir were built as step pyramids, although the largest of them – the Pyramid of Nferirkare – is believed to have originally been built as a step pyramid some 70 metres(230 feet) in height and then later transformed into a “true” pyramid by having its steps filled in with loose masonry.

Dashur

Dashur is arguably the most important pyramid field in Egypt outside Giza and Sakkara, although until recently the sight was inaccessible due to its location within a military base, and hence was virtually unknown outside archaeological circles. The southern Pyramid of Sneferu , commonly known as the Bent Pyramid is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial – but nonetheless visually arresting – success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original limestone casing, and serves as the best example of the luminous appearance common to all pyramids in their original state. The northern, or Red Pyramid built at the same location by Sneferu was later successfully completed as the world’s first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is actually the third largest pyramid in Egypt – after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Giza. Also at Dashur is the so-called Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III .

Meidun

The pyramid at Meidun is one of three constructed during the reign of Sneferu , and is believed by some to have been commenced by that pharaoh’s father and predecessor, Huni. Some archaelogists also suggest that the Meidun pyramid may have been the first unsuccessful attempt at the construction of a “true” or smooth-sided pyramid. Suffering a catastrophic collapse in antiquity, only the central parts of its stepped inner core remain standing, giving it an odd tower-like appearance that is unique among Egyptian pyramids. The hill that the pyramid sits atop is not a natural landscape feature – it is in fact the small mountain of debris created when the lower courses and outer casing of the pyramid gave way.

Hawarra

Amenemhet III was the last powerful ruler of the 12th Dynasty, and the pyramid he built at Hawarra, near Faiyum, is believed to post date the so called “Black Pyramid” built by the same ruler at Dashur. It is the Hawarra pyramid that is believed to have been Amenemhet’s final resting place. The huge mortuary temple that originally stood adjacent to this pyramid is believed to have formed the basis of the labyrinth mentioned by such ancient historians as Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, and which is said to have been the model for the labyrinth built by Daedalus for King Minos of Crete to house the Minotaur.

Lisht

Two major pyramids are known to have been built at Lisht – those of Amenemhat I and his son, Senusret I (Sesostris I). The latter is surrounded by the ruins of ten smaller subsidiary pyramids. The sight which is in the vicinity of the oasis of Fayyum, midway between Dashur and Meidun, and about 100 kilometres south of Cairo , is believed to be in the vicinity of the ancient city of Iti-tawi (the precise location of which remains unknown), which served as the capital of Egypt during the 12th Dynasty.

Zawyet el-Aryan

This sight, half way between Giza and Abu Sir, is the location for two unfinished Old Kingdom pyramids. The northern structure’s owner is believed to be the Pharaoh Nebka, whilst the southern structure is attributed to the Third Dynasty Pharaoh Khaba, also known as Hudjefa, successor to Sekhemket. Khaba’s four year tenure as pharaoh more than likely explains the similar premature truncation of his step pyramid. Today it is approximately 20 metres(65 feet) in height; had it been completed it is likely to have exceeded forty(130 feet).

Abu Rawash

Abu Rawash is the sight of Egypt’s most northerly pyramid – the mostly ruined Pyramid of Djedefre, the son and successor of Khufu. Originally it was thought that this pyramid had never been completed, but the current archaelogicical consensus is that not only was it completed, but that it was originally about the same size as the Pyramid of Menkaure – the third largest of the Giza pyramids.

Il Lahun

The pyramid of Senwosret II at Il Lahun is the southernmost pyramid structure in Egypt. Its builders reduced the amount of work necessary to construct it by ingeneously using as its foundation and core a 12 metre high natural limestone hill.

re blogged from

http://internationalresearchsociety.wordpress.com/2012/10/06/pyramidal-structures-worldwide/source: http://www.roadtoegypt.com/egypt-information/pyramids-info.html

Face to face with Carl Jung – Part 1 of 4

March 26, 2013

Carl Jung and the Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung was a student and follower of Freud. He was born in a small town in Switzerland in 1875 and all his life was fascinated by folk tales, myths and religious stories. Although he had a close friendship with Freud early in their relationship, his independent and questioning mind soon caused a break.

Jung did not accept Freud’s contention that the primary motivation behind behavior was sexual urges. Instead of Freud’s instinctual drives of sex and aggression, Jung believed that people are motivated by a more general psychological energy that pushes them to achieve psychological growth, self-realization., psychic wholeness and harmony. Also, unlike Freud, he believed that personality continues to develop throughout the lifespan.

It is for his ideas of the collective unconscious that students of literature and mythology are indebted to Jung. In studying different cultures, he was struck by the universality of many themes, patterns, stories and images. These same images, he found, frequently appeared in the dreams of his patients. From these observations, Jung developed his theory of the collective unconscious and the archetypes.

Like Freud, Jung posited the existence of a conscious and an unconscious mind. A model that psychologists frequently use here is an iceberg. The part of the iceberg that is above the surface of the water is seen as the conscious mind. Consciousness is the part of the mind we know directly. It is where we think, feel, sense and intuit. It is through conscious activity that the person becomes an individual. It’s the part of the mind that we “live in” most of the time, and contains information that is in our immediate awareness Below the level of the conscious mind, and the bulk of the ice berg, is what Freud would call the unconscious, and what Jung would call the “personal unconscious.” Here we will find thoughts, feelings, urges and other information that is difficult to bring to consciousness.

Experiences that do not reach consciousness, experiences that are not congruent with who we think we are, and things that have become “repressed” would make up the material at this level. The contents of the personal unconscious are available through hypnosis, guided imagery, and especially dreams. Although not directly accessible, material in the personal unconscious has gotten there sometime during our lifetime. For example, the reason you are going to school now, why you picked a particular shirt to wear or your choice of a career may be a choice you reached consciously. But it is also possible that education, career, or clothing style has been influenced by a great deal of unconscious material: parents’ preferences, childhood experiences, even movies you have seen but about which you do not think when you make choices or decisions. Thus, the depth psychologist would say that many decisions, indeed some of the most important ones that have to do with choosing a mate or a career, are determined by unconscious factors. But still, material in the personal unconscious has been environmentally determined.

What is the Collective Unconscious
The collective unconscious is different. It’s like eye color. If someone were to ask you, “How did you get your eye color,” you would have to say that there was no choice involved – conscious or unconscious. You inherited it. Material in the collective unconscious is like this: inherited. It never came from our current environment. It is the part of the mind that is determined by heredity. So we inherit, as part of our humanity, a collective unconscious; the mind is pre-figured by evolution just as is the body. The individual is linked to the past of the whole species and the long stretch of evolution of the organism. Jung thus placed the psyche within the evolutionary process.

What’s in the collective unconscious? Psychological archetypes. This idea of psychological archetypes is among Jung’s most important contributions to Western thought. An ancient idea somewhat like Plato’s idea of Forms or “patterns” in the divine mind that determine the form material objects will take, the archetype is in all of us. The word “archetype” comes from the Greek “arche” meaning “first, and “type” meaning “imprint or pattern.” Psychological archetypes are thus first prints, or patterns that form the basic blueprint for major dynamic counterparts of the human personality. For Jung, archetypes pre-exist in the collective unconscious of humanity. They repeat themselves eternally in the psyches of human beings and they determine how we both perceive and behave. These patterns are inborn within us. They are part of our inheritance as human beings. They reside as energy within the collective unconscious and are part the psychological life of all peoples everywhere at all times. They are inside us and they are outside us. We can meet them by going inward to our dreams or fantasies. We can meet them by going outward to our myths, legends, literature and religions. The archetype can be a pattern, such as a kind of story. Or it can be a figure, such as a kind of character.

What are some common archetypes?

In her book Awakening the Heroes Within, Carolyn Pearson identifies twelve archetypes that are fairly easy to understand. These are the Innocent, the Orphan, the Warrior, the Caregiver, the Seeker, the Destroyer, the Lover, the Creator, the Ruler, the Magician, the Sage, and the Fool. If we look at art, literature, mythology and the media, we can easily identify some of these patterns. One of the most familiar to contemporary western culture is the Warrior. We find the warrior myth encoded in all the great heroes who ever took on the dragon, stood up to the tyrant, fought the sorcerer, or did battle with the monster: and in so doing rescued himself and others. The true Warrior is not just macho. The macho man (or woman) fights to feel superior to others, to keep them down. The warrior fights to protect and ennoble others. The warrior protects the perimeters of the castle or the family or the psyche. The warrior myth is active in each of us any time we stand up against unfair authority, be it a boss, teacher or parent. The highest level warrior has at some time confronted his or her own inner dragons. We see the Warrior archetype in the form of pagan deities, for example the Greek god of war, Mars. David, who fights Goliath, or Michael, who casts Satan out of Heaven are familiar Biblical warriors.

Hercules, Xena (warrior princess) and Conan the Barbarian are more contemporary media forms the warrior takes. And it is in this widely historical variety that we can find an important point about the archetype. It really is unconscious. The archetype is like the invisible man in famous story. In the story, a man invents a potion which, when ingested, renders him invisible. He becomes visible only when he puts on clothes. The archetype is like this. It remains invisible until it dawns the clothing of its particular culture: in the Middle Ages this was King Arthur; in modern America, it may be Luke Skywalker. But if the archetype were not a universal pattern imprinted on our collective psyche, we would not be able to continue to recognize it over and over. The love goddess is another familiar archetypal pattern. Aphrodite to the Greeks, Venus to the Romans, she now appears in the form of familiar models in magazines like “Elle” and “Vanity Fair.” And whereas in ancient Greece her place of worship was the temple, today is it the movie theatre and the cosmetics counter at Nordstrom’s. The archetype remains; the garments it dawns are those of its particular time and place.

This brings us to our discussion of the Shadow as archetype. The very clearest and most articulate discussion of this subject is contained in Johnson’s book Owning Your Own Shadow. The Shadow is not a difficult concept. It is merely the “dark side” of the psyche. It’s everything that doesn’t fit into the Persona. The word “persona” comes from the theater. In the Roman theater, characters would put on a mask that represented who the character was in the drama. The word “persona” literally means “mask.” Johnson says that the persona is how we would like to be seen by the world, a kind of psychological clothing that “mediates between our true elves and our environment” in much the same way that clothing gives an image. The Shadow is what doesn’t fit into this Persona. These “refused and unacceptable” characteristics don’t go away; they are stuffed or repressed and can, if unattended to, begin to take on a life of their own.

One Jungian likens the process to that of filling a bag. We learn at a very young age that there are certain ways of thinking, being and relating that are not acceptable in our culture, and so we stuff them into the shadow bag. In our Western culture, particularly in the United States, thoughts about sex are among the most prevalent that are unacceptable and so sex gets stuffed into the bag. The shadow side of sexuality is quite evident in our culture in the form of pornography, prostitution, and topless bars. Psychic energy that is not dealt with in a healthy way takes a dark or shadow form and begins to take on a life of its own. As children our bag is fairly small, but as we get older, it becomes larger and more difficult to drag.

With this in mind, it is not difficult to see that there is a shadow side to the Archetypes discussed earlier The shadow side to the warrior is the tyrant, the villain, the Darth Vader, who uses his or her skills for power and ego enhancement. And whereas the Seeker Archetype quests after truth and purity, the shadow Seeker is controlled by pride, ambition, and addictions. If the Lover follows his/her bliss, commits and bonds, the shadow lover is a seducer a sex addict or interestingly enough, a puritan.

But we can use the term “shadow” in a more general sense. It is not merely the dark side of a particular archetypal pattern or form. Wherever Persona is, Shadow is also. Wherever good is, is evil. We first know the shadow as the personal unconscious in all that we abhor, deny and repress: power, greed, cruel and murderous thoughts, unacceptable impulses, morally and ethically wrong actions. All the demonic things by which human beings betray their inhumanity to other beings is shadow. Shadow is unconscious. This is a very important idea. Since it is unconscious, we know it only indirectly, projection, just as we know the other Archetypes of Warrior, Seeker and Lover. We encounter the shadow in other people, things, and places where we project it. The scape goat is a perfect example of shadow projection. The Nazis projection of shadow onto the Jews gives us some insight into how powerful and horrific the archetype is. Jung says that when you are in the grips of the archetype, you don’t have it, it has you.

This idea of projection raises an interesting point. It means that the shadow stuff isn’t “out there” at all; it is really “in here”; that is inside us. We only know it is inside us because we see it outside. Shadow projections have a fateful attraction to us. It seems that we have discovered where the bad stuff really is: in him, in her, in that place, there! There it is! We have found the beast, the demon, the bad guy. But does Evil really exist, or is what we see as evil all merely projection of our own shadow side? Jung would say that there really is such a thing as evil, but that most of what we see as evil, particularly collectively, is shadow projection. The difficulty is separating the two. And we can only do that when we discover where the projection ends. Hence, Johnson’s book title “Owning Your own Shadow.”

The concept of a collective consciousness is only now being truly appreciated. The World reflects what we as a people contain within us. We often project the evils of the world as being the fault of those we designate as evil amongst us yet we all contain those dark aspects. The role of the enlightened person is to claim responsibility for their own inner aspects and change them into understanding and conscious knowledge. Then the light begins to surface and the world and all within it becomes clear.

A very interesting interview with Carl Jung. I watched this as a child and found it extremely enlightening.

A very good article written by George Boeree  Below   http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/jung.html

CARL JUNG
1875 – 1961
Dr. C. George Boeree


Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will learn next to nothing from experimental psychology.  He would be better advised to abandon exact science, put away his scholar’s gown, bid farewell to his study, and wander with human heart throught the world.  There in the horrors of prisons, lunatic asylums and hospitals, in drab suburban pubs, in brothels and gambling-hells, in the salons of the elegant, the Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches, revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects, through love and hate, through the experience of passion in every form in his own body, he would reap richer stores of knowledge than text-books a foot thick could give him, and he will know how to doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the human soul. — Carl Jung (from “New Paths in Psychology”, in Collected Papers on Analytic Psychology, London, 1916)

Freud said that the goal of therapy was to make the unconscious conscious. He certainly made that the goal of his work as a theorist. And yet he makes the unconscious sound very unpleasant, to say the least: It is a cauldron of seething desires, a bottomless pit of perverse and incestuous cravings, a burial ground for frightening experiences which nevertheless come back to haunt us. Frankly, it doesn’t sound like anything I’d like to make conscious!

A younger colleague of his, Carl Jung, was to make the exploration of this “inner space” his life’s work. He went equipped with a background in Freudian theory, of course, and with an apparently inexhaustible knowledge of mythology, religion, and philosophy. Jung was especially knowledgeable in the symbolism of complex mystical traditions such as Gnosticism, Alchemy, Kabala, and similar traditions in Hinduism and Buddhism. If anyone could make sense of the unconscious and its habit of revealing itself only in symbolic form, it would be Carl Jung.

He had, in addition, a capacity for very lucid dreaming and occasional visions. In the fall of 1913, he had a vision of a “monstrous flood” engulfing most of Europe and lapping at the mountains of his native Switzerland. He saw thousands of people drowning and civilization crumbling. Then, the waters turned into blood. This vision was followed, in the next few weeks, by dreams of eternal winters and rivers of blood. He was afraid that he was becoming psychotic.

But on August 1 of that year, World War I began. Jung felt that there had been a connection, somehow, between himself as an individual and humanity in general that could not be explained away. From then until 1928, he was to go through a rather painful process of self-exploration that formed the basis of all of his later theorizing.

He carefully recorded his dreams, fantasies, and visions, and drew, painted, and sculpted them as well. He found that his experiences tended to form themselves into persons, beginning with a wise old man and his companion, a little girl. The wise old man evolved, over a number of dreams, into a sort of spiritual guru. The little girl became “anima,” the feminine soul, who served as his main medium of communication with the deeper aspects of his unconscious.

A leathery brown dwarf would show up guarding the entrance to the unconscious. He was “the shadow,” a primitive companion for Jung’s ego. Jung dreamt that he and the dwarf killed a beautiful blond youth, whom he called Siegfried. For Jung, this represented a warning about the dangers of the worship of glory and heroism which would soon cause so much sorrow all over Europe — and a warning about the dangers of some of his own tendencies towards hero-worship, of Sigmund Freud!

Jung dreamt a great deal about the dead, the land of the dead, and the rising of the dead. These represented the unconscious itself — not the “little” personal unconscious that Freud made such a big deal out of, but a new collective unconscious of humanity itself, an unconscious that could contain all the dead, not just our personal ghosts. Jung began to see the mentally ill as people who are haunted by these ghosts, in an age where no-one is supposed to even believe in them. If we could only recapture our mythologies, we would understand these ghosts, become comfortable with the dead, and heal our mental illnesses.

Critics have suggested that Jung was, very simply, ill himself when all this happened. But Jung felt that, if you want to understand the jungle, you can’t be content just to sail back and forth near the shore. You’ve got to get into it, no matter how strange and frightening it might seem.


Biography

Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875, in the small Swiss village of Kessewil. His father was Paul Jung, a country parson, and his mother was Emilie Preiswerk Jung. He was surrounded by a fairly well educated extended family, including quite a few clergymen and some eccentrics as well.

The elder Jung started Carl on Latin when he was six years old, beginning a long interest in language and literature — especially ancient literature. Besides most modern western European languages, Jung could read several ancient ones, including Sanskrit, the language of the original Hindu holy books.

Carl was a rather solitary adolescent, who didn’t care much for school, and especially couldn’t take competition. He went to boarding school in Basel, Switzerland, where he found himself the object of a lot of jealous harassment. He began to use sickness as an excuse, developing an embarrassing tendency to faint under pressure.

Although his first career choice was archeology, he went on to study medicine at the University of Basel. While working under the famous neurologist Krafft-Ebing, he settled on psychiatry as his career.

After graduating, he took a position at the Burghoeltzli Mental Hospital in Zurich under Eugene Bleuler, an expert on (and the namer of) schizophrenia. In 1903, he married Emma Rauschenbach. He also taught classes at the University of Zurich, had a private practice, and invented word association at this time!

Long an admirer of Freud, he met him in Vienna in 1907. The story goes that after they met, Freud canceled all his appointments for the day, and they talked for 13 hours straight, such was the impact of the meeting of these two great minds! Freud eventually came to see Jung as the crown prince of psychoanalysis and his heir apparent.

But Jung had never been entirely sold on Freud’s theory. Their relationship began to cool in 1909, during a trip to America. They were entertaining themselves by analyzing each others’ dreams (more fun, apparently, than shuffleboard), when Freud seemed to show an excess of resistance to Jung’s efforts at analysis. Freud finally said that they’d have to stop because he was afraid he would lose his authority! Jung felt rather insulted.

World War I was a painful period of self-examination for Jung. It was, however, also the beginning of one of the most interesting theories of personality the world has ever seen.

After the war, Jung traveled widely, visiting, for example, tribal people in Africa, America, and India. He retired in 1946, and began to retreat from public attention after his wife died in 1955. He died on June 6, 1961, in Zurich.


Theory

Jung’s theory divides the psyche into three parts. The first is the ego,which Jung identifies with the conscious mind. Closely related is the personal unconscious, which includes anything which is not presently conscious, but can be. The personal unconscious is like most people’s understanding of the unconscious in that it includes both memories that are easily brought to mind and those that have been suppressed for some reason. But it does not include the instincts that Freud would have it include.

But then Jung adds the part of the psyche that makes his theory stand out from all others: the collective unconscious. You could call it your “psychic inheritance.” It is the reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge we are all born with. And yet we can never be directly conscious of it. It influences all of our experiences and behaviors, most especially the emotional ones, but we only know about it indirectly, by looking at those influences.

There are some experiences that show the effects of the collective unconscious more clearly than others: The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you’ve been here before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths, could all be understood as the sudden conjunction of our outer reality and the inner reality of the collective unconscious. Grander examples are the creative experiences shared by artists and musicians all over the world and in all times, or the spiritual experiences of mystics of all religions, or the parallels in dreams, fantasies, mythologies, fairy tales, and literature.

A nice example that has been greatly discussed recently is the near-death experience. It seems that many people, of many different cultural backgrounds, find that they have very similar recollections when they are brought back from a close encounter with death. They speak of leaving their bodies, seeing their bodies and the events surrounding them clearly, of being pulled through a long tunnel towards a bright light, of seeing deceased relatives or religious figures waiting for them, and of their disappointment at having to leave this happy scene to return to their bodies. Perhaps we are all “built” to experience death in this fashion.

Archetypes

The contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes. Jung also called them dominants, imagos, mythological or primordial images, and a few other names, but archetypes seems to have won out over these. An archetype is an unlearned tendency to experience things in a certain way.

The archetype has no form of its own, but it acts as an “organizing principle” on the things we see or do. It works the way that instincts work in Freud’s theory: At first, the baby just wants something to eat, without knowing what it wants. It has a rather indefinite yearning which, nevertheless, can be satisfied by some things and not by others. Later, with experience, the child begins to yearn for something more specific when it is hungry — a bottle, a cookie, a broiled lobster, a slice of New York style pizza.

The archetype is like a black hole in space: You only know its there by how it draws matter and light to itself.

The mother archetype

The mother archetype is a particularly good example. All of our ancestors had mothers. We have evolved in an environment that included a mother or mother-substitute. We would never have survived without our connection with a nurturing-one during our times as helpless infants. It stands to reason that we are “built” in a way that reflects that evolutionary environment: We come into this world ready to want mother, to seek her, to recognize her, to deal with her.

So the mother archetype is our built-in ability to recognize a certain relationship, that of “mothering.” Jung says that this is rather abstract, and we are likely to project the archetype out into the world and onto a particular person, usually our own mothers. Even when an archetype doesn’t have a particular real person available, we tend to personify the archetype, that is, turn it into a mythological “story-book” character. This character symbolizes the archetype.

The mother archetype is symbolized by the primordial mother or “earth mother” of mythology, by Eve and Mary in western traditions, and by less personal symbols such as the church, the nation, a forest, or the ocean. According to Jung, someone whose own mother failed to satisfy the demands of the archetype may well be one that spends his or her life seeking comfort in the church, or in identification with “the motherland,” or in meditating upon the figure of Mary, or in a life at sea.

Mana

You must understand that these archetypes are not really biological things, like Freud’s instincts. They are more spiritual demands. For example, if you dreamt about long things, Freud might suggest these things represent the phallus and ultimately sex. But Jung might have a very different interpretation. Even dreaming quite specifically about a penis might not have much to do with some unfulfilled need for sex.

It is curious that in primitive societies, phallic symbols do not usually refer to sex at all. They usually symbolize mana, or spiritual power. These symbols would be displayed on occasions when the spirits are being called upon to increase the yield of corn, or fish, or to heal someone. The connection between the penis and strength, between semen and seed, between fertilization and fertility are understood by most cultures.

The shadow

Sex and the life instincts in general are, of course, represented somewhere in Jung’s system. They are a part of an archetype called the shadow. It derives from our prehuman, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren’t self-conscious.

It is the “dark side” of the ego, and the evil that we are capable of is often stored there. Actually, the shadow is amoral — neither good nor bad, just like animals. An animal is capable of tender care for its young and vicious killing for food, but it doesn’t choose to do either. It just does what it does. It is “innocent.” But from our human perspective, the animal world looks rather brutal, inhuman, so the shadow becomes something of a garbage can for the parts of ourselves that we can’t quite admit to.

Symbols of the shadow include the snake (as in the garden of Eden), the dragon, monsters, and demons. It often guards the entrance to a cave or a pool of water, which is the collective unconscious. Next time you dream about wrestling with the devil, it may only be yourself you are wrestling with!

The persona

The persona represents your public image. The word is, obviously, related to the word person and personality, and comes from a Latin word for mask. So the persona is the mask you put on before you show yourself to the outside world. Although it begins as an archetype, by the time we are finished realizing it, it is the part of us most distant from the collective unconscious.

At its best, it is just the “good impression” we all wish to present as we fill the roles society requires of us. But, of course, it can also be the “false impression” we use to manipulate people’s opinions and behaviors. And, at its worst, it can be mistaken, even by ourselves, for our true nature: Sometimes we believe we really are what we pretend to be!

Anima and animus

A part of our persona is the role of male or female we must play. For most people that role is determined by their physical gender. But Jung, like Freud and Adler and others, felt that we are all really bisexual in nature. When we begin our lives as fetuses, we have undifferentiated sex organs that only gradually, under the influence of hormones, become male or female. Likewise, when we begin our social lives as infants, we are neither male nor female in the social sense. Almost immediately — as soon as those pink or blue booties go on — we come under the influence of society, which gradually molds us into men and women.

In all societies, the expectations placed on men and women differ, usually based on our different roles in reproduction, but often involving many details that are purely traditional. In our society today, we still have many remnants of these traditional expectations. Women are still expected to be more nurturant and less aggressive; men are still expected to be strong and to ignore the emotional side of life. But Jung felt these expectations meant that we had developed only half of our potential.

The anima is the female aspect present in the collective unconscious of men, and the animus is the male aspect present in the collective unconscious of women. Together, they are refered to as syzygy. The anima may be personified as a young girl, very spontaneous and intuitive, or as a witch, or as the earth mother. It is likely to be associated with deep emotionality and the force of life itself. The animus may be personified as a wise old man, a sorcerer, or often a number of males, and tends to be logical, often rationalistic, even argumentative.

The anima or animus is the archetype through which you communicate with the collective unconscious generally, and it is important to get into touch with it. It is also the archetype that is responsible for much of our love life: We are, as an ancient Greek myth suggests, always looking for our other half, the half that the Gods took from us, in members of the opposite sex. When we fall in love at first sight, then we have found someone that “fills” our anima or animus archetype particularly well!

Other archetypes

Jung said that there is no fixed number of archetypes which we could simply list and memorize. They overlap and easily melt into each other as needed, and their logic is not the usual kind. But here are some he mentions:

Besides mother, their are other family archetypes. Obviously, there is father, who is often symbolized by a guide or an authority figure. There is also the archetype family, which represents the idea of blood relationship and ties that run deeper than those based on conscious reasons.

There is also the child, represented in mythology and art by children, infants most especially, as well as other small creatures. The Christ child celebrated at Christmas is a manifestation of the child archetype, and represents the future, becoming, rebirth, and salvation. Curiously, Christmas falls during the winter solstice, which in northern primitive cultures also represents the future and rebirth. People used to light bonfires and perform ceremonies to encourage the sun’s return to them. The child archetype often blends with other archetypes to form the child-god, or the child-hero.

Many archetypes are story characters. The hero is one of the main ones. He is the mana personality and the defeater of evil dragons. Basically, he represents the ego — we do tend to identify with the hero of the story — and is often engaged in fighting the shadow, in the form of dragons and other monsters. The hero is, however, often dumb as a post. He is, after all, ignorant of the ways of the collective unconscious. Luke Skywalker, in the Star Wars films, is the perfect example of a hero.

The hero is often out to rescue the maiden. She represents purity, innocence, and, in all likelihood, naivete. In the beginning of the Star Wars story, Princess Leia is the maiden. But, as the story progresses, she becomes the anima, discovering the powers of the force — the collective unconscious — and becoming an equal partner with Luke, who turns out to be her brother.

The hero is guided by the wise old man. He is a form of the animus, and reveals to the hero the nature of the collective unconscious. In Star Wars, he is played by Obi Wan Kenobi and, later, Yoda. Notice that they teach Luke about the force and, as Luke matures, they die and become a part of him.

You might be curious as to the archetype represented by Darth Vader, the “dark father.” He is the shadow and the master of the dark side of the force. He also turns out to be Luke and Leia’s father. When he dies, he becomes one of the wise old men.

There is also an animal archetype, representing humanity’s relationships with the animal world. The hero’s faithful horse would be an example. Snakes are often symbolic of the animal archetype, and are thought to be particularly wise. Animals, after all, are more in touch with their natures than we are. Perhaps loyal little robots and reliable old spaceships — the Falcon– are also symbols of animal.

And there is the trickster, often represented by a clown or a magician. The trickster’s role is to hamper the hero’s progress and to generally make trouble. In Norse mythology, many of the gods’ adventures originate in some trick or another played on their majesties by the half-god Loki.

There are other archetypes that are a little more difficult to talk about. One is the original man, represented in western religion by Adam. Another is theGod archetype, representing our need to comprehend the universe, to give a meaning to all that happens, to see it all as having some purpose and direction.

The hermaphrodite, both male and female, represents the union of opposites, an important idea in Jung’s theory. In some religious art, Jesus is presented as a rather feminine man. Likewise, in China, the character Kuan Yin began as a male saint (the bodhisattva Avalokiteshwara), but was portrayed in such a feminine manner that he is more often thought of as the female goddess of compassion!

The most important archetype of all is the self. The self is the ultimate unity of the personality and issymbolized by the circle, the cross, and the mandala figures that Jung was fond of painting. A mandala is a drawing that is used in meditation because it tends to draw your focus back to the center, and it can be as simple as a geometric figure or as complicated as a stained glass window. The personifications that best represent self are Christ and Buddha, two people who many believe achieved perfection. But Jung felt that perfection of the personality is only truly achieved in death.

The dynamics of the psyche

So much for the content of the psyche. Now let’s turn to the principles of its operation. Jung gives us three principles, beginning with the principle of opposites. Every wish immediately suggests its opposite. If I have a good thought, for example, I cannot help but have in me somewhere the opposite bad thought. In fact, it is a very basic point: In order to have a concept of good, you must have a concept of bad, just like you can’t have up without down or black without white.

This idea came home to me when I was about eleven. I occasionally tried to help poor innocent woodland creatures who had been hurt in some way — often, I’m afraid, killing them in the process. Once I tried to nurse a baby robin back to health. But when I picked it up, I was so struck by how light it was that the thought came to me that I could easily crush it in my hand. Mind you, I didn’t like the idea, but it was undeniably there.

According to Jung, it is the opposition that creates the power (or libido) of the psyche. It is like the two poles of a battery, or the splitting of an atom. It is the contrast that gives energy, so that a strong contrast gives strong energy, and a weak contrast gives weak energy.

The second principle is the principle of equivalence. The energy created from the opposition is “given” to both sides equally. So, when I held that baby bird in my hand, there was energy to go ahead and try to help it. But there is an equal amount of energy to go ahead and crush it. I tried to help the bird, so that energy went into the various behaviors involved in helping it. But what happens to the other energy?

Well, that depends on your attitude towards the wish that you didn’t fulfill. If you acknowledge it, face it, keep it available to the conscious mind, then the energy goes towards a general improvement of your psyche. You grow, in other words.

But if you pretend that you never had that evil wish, if you deny and suppress it, the energy will go towards the development of a complex. A complex is a pattern of suppressed thoughts and feelings that cluster — constellate — around a theme provided by some archetype. If you deny ever having thought about crushing the little bird, you might put that idea into the form offered by the shadow (your “dark side”). Or if a man denies his emotional side, his emotionality might find its way into the anima archetype. And so on.

Here’s where the problem comes: If you pretend all your life that you are only good, that you don’t even have the capacity to lie and cheat and steal and kill, then all the times when you do good, that other side of you goes into a complex around the shadow. That complex will begin to develop a life of its own, and it will haunt you. You might find yourself having nightmares in which you go around stomping on little baby birds!

If it goes on long enough, the complex may take over, may “possess” you, and you might wind up with a multiple personality. In the movie The Three Faces of Eve, Joanne Woodward portrayed a meek, mild woman who eventually discovered that she went out and partied like crazy on Saturday nights. She didn’t smoke, but found cigarettes in her purse, didn’t drink, but woke up with hangovers, didn’t fool around, but found herself in sexy outfits. Although multiple personality is rare, it does tend to involve these kinds of black-and-white extremes.

The final principle is the principle of entropy. This is the tendency for oppositions to come together, and so for energy to decrease, over a person’s lifetime. Jung borrowed the idea from physics, where entropy refers to the tendency of all physical systems to “run down,” that is, for all energy to become evenly distributed. If you have, for example, a heat source in one corner of the room, the whole room will eventually be heated.

When we are young, the opposites will tend to be extreme, and so we tend to have lots of energy. For example, adolescents tend to exaggerate male-female differences, with boys trying hard to be macho and girls trying equally hard to be feminine. And so their sexual activity is invested with great amounts of energy! Plus, adolescents often swing from one extreme to another, being wild and crazy one minute and finding religion the next.

As we get older, most of us come to be more comfortable with our different facets. We are a bit less naively idealistic and recognize that we are all mixtures of good and bad. We are less threatened by the opposite sex within us and become more androgynous. Even physically, in old age, men and women become more alike. This process of rising above our opposites, of seeing both sides of who we are, is called transcendence.

The self

The goal of life is to realize the self. The self is an archetype that represents the transcendence of all opposites, so that every aspect of your personality is expressed equally. You are then neither and both male and female, neither and both ego and shadow, neither and both good and bad, neither and both conscious and unconscious, neither and both an individual and the whole of creation. And yet, with no oppositions, there is no energy, and you cease to act. Of course, you no longer need to act.

To keep it from getting too mystical, think of it as a new center, a more balanced position, for your psyche. When you are young, you focus on the ego and worry about the trivialities of the persona. When you are older (assuming you have been developing as you should), you focus a little deeper, on the self, and become closer to all people, all life, even the universe itself. The self-realized person is actually less selfish.

Synchronicity

Personality theorists have argued for many years about whether psychological processes function in terms of mechanism or teleology. Mechanism is the idea that things work in through cause and effect: One thing leads to another which leads to another, and so on, so that the past determines the present. Teleology is the idea that we are lead on by our ideas about a future state, by things like purposes, meanings, values, and so on. Mechanism is linked with determinism and with the natural sciences. Teleology is linked with free will and has become rather rare. It is still common among moral, legal, and religious philosophers, and, of course, among personality theorists.

Among the people discussed in this book, Freudians and behaviorists tend to be mechanists, while the neo-Freudians, humanists, and existentialists tend to be teleologists. Jung believes that both play a part. But he adds a third alternative called synchronicity.

Synchronicity is the occurrence of two events that are not linked causally, nor linked teleologically, yet are meaningfully related. Once, a client was describing a dream involving a scarab beetle when, at that very instant, a very similar beetle flew into the window. Often, people dream about something, like the death of a loved one, and find the next morning that their loved one did, in fact, die at about that time. Sometimes people pick up he phone to call a friend, only to find that their friend is already on the line. Most psychologists would call these things coincidences, or try to show how they are more likely to occur than we think. Jung believed the were indications of how we are connected, with our fellow humans and with nature in general, through the collective unconscious.

Jung was never clear about his own religious beliefs. But this unusual idea of synchronicity is easily explained by the Hindu view of reality. In the Hindu view, our individual egos are like islands in a sea: We look out at the world and each other and think we are separate entities. What we don’t see is that we are connected to each other by means of the ocean floor beneath the waters.

The outer world is called maya, meaning illusion, and is thought of as God’s dream or God’s dance. That is, God creates it, but it has no reality of its own. Our individual egos they call jivatman, which means individual souls. But they, too, are something of an illusion. We are all actually extensions of the one and only Atman, or God, who allows bits of himself to forget his identity, to become apparently separate and independent, to become us. But we never truly are separate. When we die, we wake up and realize who we were from the beginning: God.

When we dream or meditate, we sink into our personal unconscious, coming closer and closer to our true selves, the collective unconscious. It is in states like this that we are especially open to “communications” from other egos. Synchronicity makes Jung’s theory one of the rare ones that is not only compatible with parapsychological phenomena, but actually tries to explain them!

Introversion and extroversion

Jung developed a personality typology that has become so popular that some people don’t realize he did anything else! It begins with the distinction between introversion and extroversion. Introverts are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts, feelings, fantasies, dreams, and so on, while extroverts prefer the external world of things and people and activities.

The words have become confused with ideas like shyness and sociability, partially because introverts tend to be shy and extroverts tend to be sociable. But Jung intended for them to refer more to whether you (“ego”) more often faced toward the persona and outer reality, or toward the collective unconscious and its archetypes. In that sense, the introvert is somewhat more mature than the extrovert. Our culture, of course, values the extrovert much more. And Jung warned that we all tend to value our own type most!

We now find the introvert-extravert dimension in several theories, notably Hans Eysenck’s, although often hidden under alternative names such as “sociability” and “surgency.”

The functions

Whether we are introverts or extroverts, we need to deal with the world, inner and outer. And each of us has our preferred ways of dealing with it, ways we are comfortable with and good at. Jung suggests there are four basic ways, or functions:

The first is sensing. Sensing means what it says: getting information by means of the senses. A sensing person is good at looking and listening and generally getting to know the world. Jung called this one of the irrational functions, meaning that it involved perception rather than judging of information.

The second is thinking. Thinking means evaluating information or ideas rationally, logically. Jung called this a rational function, meaning that it involves decision making or judging, rather than simple intake of information.

The third is intuiting. Intuiting is a kind of perception that works outside of the usual conscious processes. It is irrational or perceptual, like sensing, but comes from the complex integration of large amounts of information, rather than simple seeing or hearing. Jung said it was like seeing around corners.

The fourth is feeling. Feeling, like thinking, is a matter of evaluating information, this time by weighing one’s overall, emotional response. Jung calls it rational, obviously not in the usual sense of the word.

We all have these functions. We just have them in different proportions, you might say. Each of us has a superior function, which we prefer and which is best developed in us, a secondary function, which we are aware of and use in support of our superior function, a tertiary function, which is only slightly less developed but not terribly conscious, and an inferior function, which is poorly developed and so unconscious that we might deny its existence in ourselves.

Most of us develop only one or two of the functions, but our goal should be to develop all four. Once again, Jung sees the transcendence of opposites as the ideal.

Assessment

Katharine Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers found Jung’s types and functions so revealing of people’s personalities that they decided to develop a paper-and-pencil test. It came to be called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and is one of the most popular, and most studied, tests around.

On the basis of your answers on about 125 questions, you are placed in one of sixteen types, with the understanding that some people might find themselves somewhere between two or three types. What type you are says quite a bit about you — your likes and dislikes, your likely career choices, your compatibility with others, and so on. People tend to like it quite a bit. It has the unusual quality among personality tests of not being too judgmental: None of the types is terribly negative, nor are any overly positive. Rather than assessing how “crazy” you are, the “Myers-Briggs” simply opens up your personality for exploration.

The test has four scales. Extroversion – Introversion (E-I) is the most important. Test researchers have found that about 75 % of the population is extroverted.

The next one is Sensing – Intuiting (S-N), with about 75 % of the population sensing.

The next is Thinking – Feeling (T-F). Although these are distributed evenly through the population, researchers have found that two-thirds of men are thinkers, while two-thirds of women are feelers. This might seem like stereotyping, but keep in mind that feeling and thinking are both valued equally by Jungians, and that one-third of men are feelers and one-third of women are thinkers. Note, though, that society does value thinking and feeling differently, and that feeling men and thinking women often have difficulties dealing with people’s stereotyped expectations.

The last is Judging – Perceiving (J-P), not one of Jung’s original dimensions. Myers and Briggs included this one in order to help determine which of a person’s functions is superior. Generally, judging people are more careful, perhaps inhibited, in their lives. Perceiving people tend to be more spontaneous, sometimes careless. If you are an extrovert and a “J,” you are a thinker or feeler, whichever is stronger. Extroverted and “P” means you are a senser or intuiter. On the other hand, an introvert with a high “J” score will be a senser or intuiter, while an introvert with a high “P” score will be a thinker or feeler. J and P are equally distributed in the population.

Each type is identified by four letters, such as ENFJ. These have proven so popular, you can even find them on people’s license plates!

ENFJ (Extroverted feeling with intuiting): These people are easy speakers. They tend to idealize their friends. They make good parents, but have a tendency to allow themselves to be used. They make good therapists, teachers, executives, and salespeople.

ENFP (Extroverted intuiting with feeling): These people love novelty and surprises. They are big on emotions and expression. They are susceptible to muscle tension and tend to be hyperalert. they tend to feel self-conscious. They are good at sales, advertising, politics, and acting.

ENTJ (Extroverted thinking with intuiting): In charge at home, they expect a lot from spouses and kids. They like organization and structure and tend to make good executives and administrators.

ENTP (Extroverted intuiting with thinking): These are lively people, not humdrum or orderly. As mates, they are a little dangerous, especially economically. They are good at analysis and make good entrepreneurs. They do tend to play at oneupmanship.

ESFJ (Extroverted feeling with sensing): These people like harmony. They tend to have strong shoulds and should-nots. They may be dependent, first on parents and later on spouses. They wear their hearts on their sleeves and excel in service occupations involving personal contact.

ESFP (Extroverted sensing with feeling): Very generous and impulsive, they have a low tolerance for anxiety. They make good performers, they like public relations, and they love the phone. They should avoid scholarly pursuits, especially science.

ESTJ (Extroverted thinking with sensing): These are responsible mates and parents and are loyal to the workplace. They are realistic, down-to-earth, orderly, and love tradition. They often find themselves joining civic clubs!

ESTP (Extroverted sensing with thinking): These are action-oriented people, often sophisticated, sometimes ruthless — our “James Bonds.” As mates, they are exciting and charming, but they have trouble with commitment. They make good promoters, entrepreneurs, and con artists.

INFJ (Introverted intuiting with feeling): These are serious students and workers who really want to contribute. They are private and easily hurt. They make good spouses, but tend to be physically reserved. People often think they are psychic. They make good therapists, general practitioners, ministers, and so on.

INFP (Introverted feeling with intuiting): These people are idealistic, self-sacrificing, and somewhat cool or reserved. They are very family and home oriented, but don’t relax well. You find them in psychology, architecture, and religion, but never in business.

INTJ (Introverted intuiting with thinking): These are the most independent of all types. They love logic and ideas and are drawn to scientific research. They can be rather single-minded, though.

INTP (Introverted thinking with intuiting): Faithful, preoccupied, and forgetful, these are the bookworms. They tend to be very precise in their use of language. They are good at logic and math and make good philosophers and theoretical scientists, but not writers or salespeople.

ISFJ (Introverted sensing with feeling): These people are service and work oriented. They may suffer from fatigue and tend to be attracted to troublemakers. They are good nurses, teachers, secretaries, general practitioners, librarians, middle managers, and housekeepers.

ISFP (Introverted feeling with sensing): They are shy and retiring, are not talkative, but like sensuous action. They like painting, drawing, sculpting, composing, dancing — the arts generally — and they like nature. They are not big on commitment.

ISTJ (Introverted sensing with thinking): These are dependable pillars of strength. They often try to reform their mates and other people. They make good bank examiners, auditors, accountants, tax examiners, supervisors in libraries and hospitals, business, home ec., and phys. ed. teachers, and boy or girl scouts!

ISTP (Introverted thinking with sensing): These people are action-oriented and fearless, and crave excitement. They are impulsive and dangerous to stop. They often like tools, instruments, and weapons, and often become technical experts. They are not interested in communications and are often incorrectly diagnosed as dyslexic or hyperactive. They tend to do badly in school.

Even without taking the test, you may very well recognize yourself in one or two of these types. Or ask others — they may be more accurate!   But, if you like, you can take my Jungian personality test on the internet:  Just click here!


Discussion

Quite a few people find that Jung has a great deal to say to them. They include writers, artists, musicians, film makers, theologians, clergy of all denominations, students of mythology, and, of course, some psychologists. Examples that come to mind are the mythologist Joseph Campbell, the film maker George Lucas, and the science fiction author Ursula K. Le Guin. Anyone interested in creativity, spirituality, psychic phenomena, the universal, and so on will find in Jung a kindred spirit.

But scientists, including most psychologists, have a lot of trouble with Jung. Not only does he fully support the teleological view (as do most personality theorists), but he goes a step further and talks about the mystical interconnectedness of synchronicity. Not only does he postulate an unconscious, where things are not easily available to the empirical eye, but he postulates a collective unconscious that never has been and never will be conscious.

In fact, Jung takes an approach that is essentially the reverse of the mainstream’s reductionism: Jung begins with the highest levels — even spiritualism — and derives the lower levels of psychology and physiology from them.

Even psychologists who applaud his teleology and antireductionist position may not be comfortable with him. Like Freud, Jung tries to bring everything into his system. He has little room for chance, accident, or circumstances. Personality — and life in general — seems “over-explained” in Jung’s theory.

I have found that his theory sometimes attracts students who have difficulty dealing with reality. When the world, especially the social world, becomes too difficult, some people retreat into fantasy. Some, for example, become couch potatoes. But others turn to complex ideologies that pretend to explain everything. Some get involved in Gnostic or Tantric religions, the kind that present intricate rosters of angels and demons and heavens and hells, and endlessly discuss symbols. Some go to Jung. There is nothing intrinsically wrong with this; but for someone who is out of touch with reality, this is hardly going to help.

These criticisms do not cut the foundation out from under Jung’s theory. But they do suggest that some careful consideration is in order.

The positive things

On the plus side, there is the Myers-Briggs and other tests based on Jung’s types and functions. Because they do not place people on dimensions that run from “good” to “bad,” they are much less threatening. They encourage people to become more aware of themselves.

The archetypes, at first glance, might seem to be Jung’s strangest idea. And yet they have proven to be very useful in the analysis of myths, fairy tales, literature in general, artistic symbolism, and religious exposition. They apparently capture some of the basic “units” of our self-expression. Many people have suggested that there are only so many stories and characters in the world, and we just keep on rearranging the details.

This suggests that the archetypes actually do refer to some deep structures of the human mind. After all, from the physiological perspective, we come into his world with a certain structure: We see in a certain way, hear in a certain way, “process information” in a certain way, behave in a certain way, because our neurons and glands and muscles are structured in a certain way. At least one cognitive psychologist has suggested looking for the structures that correspond to Jung’s archetypes!

Finally, Jung has opened our eyes to the differences between child development and adult development. Children clearly emphasize differentiation — separating one thing from another — in their learning. “What’s this?” ” Why is it this way and not that?” “What kinds are there?” They actively seek diversity. And many people, psychologists included, have been so impressed by this that they have assumed that all learning is a matter of differentiation, of learning more and more “things.”

But Jung has pointed out that adults search more for integration, for the transcending of opposites. Adults search for the connections between things, how things fit together, how they interact, how they contribute to the whole. We want to make sense of it, find the meaning of it, the purpose of it all. Children unravel the world; adults try to knit it back together.

Connections

On the one hand, Jung is still attached to his Freudian roots. He emphasizes the unconscious even more than Freudians do. In fact, he might be seen as the logical extension of Freud’s tendency to put the causes of things into the past. Freud, too, talked about myths –Oedipus, for example — and how they impact on the modern psyche.

On the other hand, Jung has a lot in common with the neo-Freudians, humanists, and existentialists. He believes that we are meant to progress, to move in a positive direction, and not just to adapt, as the Freudians and behaviorists would have it. His idea of self-realization is clearly similar to self-actualization.

The balancing or transcending of opposites also has counterparts in other theories. Alfred Adler, Otto Rank, Andreas Angyal, David Bakan, Gardner Murphy, and Rollo May all make reference to balancing two opposing tendencies, one towards individual development and the other towards the development of compassion or social interest. Rollo May talks about the psyche being composed of many “daimons” (little gods) such as the desire for sex, or love, or power. All are positive in their place, but should any one take over the whole personality, we would have “daimonic possession,” or mental illness!

Finally, we owe to Jung the broadening of interpretation, whether of symptoms or dreams or free-associations. While Freud developed more-or-less rigid (specifically, sexual) interpretations, Jung allowed for a rather free-wheeling “mythological” interpretation, wherein anything could mean, well, anything. Existential analysis, in particular, has benefited from Jung’s ideas.


Readings

Most of Jung’s writings are contained in The Collected Works of Carl G. Jung. I have to warn you that most of his works are not easy going, but they are full of interesting things that make them worth the trouble.

If you are looking for something a little easier, you might try Analytic Psychology: Its Theory and Practice, which is a collection of lectures and is available in paperback. Or read Man and His Symbols, which is available in several editions ranging from large ones with many color pictures to an inexpensive paperback. If you want a smattering of Jung, try a collection of his writings, such as Modern Library’s The Basic Writings of C. C. Jung.

The best book I’ve ever read about Jung, however, is the autobiographical Memories, Dreams, Reflections, written with his student Aniela Jaffé. It makes a good introduction, assuming you’ve read something like the preceding chapter first. Read it here on PDF

http://arthursbookshelf.com/other-stuff/philos/Memories,%20Dreams,%20Reflections%20-%20Carl%20Jung.pdf


SYNCHRONICITY
THE BRIDGE BETWEEN MATTER AND MIND
by F. DAVID PEAT PhD
[Abridged]
Carl Jung defined synchronicity as “The coincidence in time of two or more causally unrelated events which have the same meaning.” His implication is clear–certain events in the universe cluster together into meaningful patterns without recourse to the normal pushes and pulls of causality. These synchronicities therefore must transcend the normal laws of science, for they are the expressions of much deeper movements that originate in the ground of the universe and involve, in an inseparable way, both matter and meaning.The true story of synchronicity begins with the collaboration of two remarkable thinkers, the psychologist Carl Jung and the physicist Wolfgang Pauli. Their concept of synchronicity originated in a marriage between the approaches of physics and psychology. Jung writes, “In writing this paper I have, so to speak, made good a promise which for many years I lacked the courage to fulfill. The difficulties of the problem and its representation seemed to me too great…If I have now conquered my hesitation and at last come to grips with the theme it is chiefly because my experiences of the phenomenon of synchronicity have multiplied themselves over the decades”. “Meaningful coincidences are unthinkable as pure chance–the more they multiply and the greater and more exact the correspondence is…they can no longer be regarded as pure chance, but, for the lack of a causal explanation, have to be thought of as meaningful arrangements.
W. Pauli writes, “There must be something else. I think I know what is coming. I know it exactly. But I don’t tell it to others. They may think I am mad. So I am doing five dimensional theory of relativity although I don’t really believe in it. But I know what is coming. Perhaps I will tell you some time.”

Despite our appeal to a “scientific view of nature,” such events do occur, and while it is true that anyone of them can be dismissed as “coincidence” such an explanation makes little sense to the person who has experienced such a synchronicity.Indeed the whole point of such happenings is that they are meaningful and play a significant role in a person’s life. Synchronicities are the jokers in nature’s pack of cards for they refuse to play by the rules and offer a hint that, in our quest for certainty about the universe, we may have ignored some vital clues. Synchronicities challenge us to build a bridge with one foundation derived into the objectivity of hard science and the other into the subjectivity of personal values.

Synchronicities take the form of patterns that emerge by chance out of a general background of chance and contingency and hold a deep meaning for the person who experiences them. Often these coincidences occur at critical points in a person’s life and can be interpreted as containing the seeds of future growth. Synchronicities could, therefore, be said to involve the meaningful unfoldment of potential. Synchronicities are therefore often associated with periods of transformation; for example, births, deaths, falling in love, psychotherapy, intense creative work, and even a change of profession. It is as if this internal restructuring produces external resonance’s or as if a burst of “mental energy” is propagated outward into the physical world.

Such synchronicities begin within the outer world and then move inward as their meaning is revealed. Such synchronicities depend on detecting a deeper meaning to the patterns and clusterings of the phenomena around us. They may involve our becoming linked with the environment in a special way, anticipating events or sensing some underlying pattern to the world.While the conventional laws of physics do not heed human desires or the need for meaning–apples fall whether we will them to or not–synchronicities act as mirrors to the inner processes of mind and take the form of outer manifestations of interior transformations.

The many examples of coincidental movements of thought, feeling, and ideas between unconnected groups and across disciplines suggests that a deeper meaning lies beyond these coincidents and synchronicities.
Such curious events may not be so much the result of a “psychic link” or mental communication but rather indicate that a mutual process is unfolding out of the same ground and that this ground must therefore lie beyond the individual consciousness that is located in space and time. It is as if the formation of patterns within the unconscious mind is accompanied by physical patterns in the outer world. Synchronicity is therefore the expression of the potential or meaning contained within a certain point of existence. It acts as an intimation of the meaning that lies hidden within a particular life, relationship, or historical moment.

The special flavor of a synchronicity lies in its being, at one and the same time, a unique, individual event and the manifestation of universal order. Wrapped within the temporal moment, a synchronicity exhibits its transcendental nature. It is this relationship between the transcendent and the coincidental arrangement of mental and physical happenings that the synchronicity acquires its numinous meaning.
Synchronicities represent a bridge between matter and mind and the concept of causality is clearly not appropriate to the world of mental events. By probing causality to its limit, it has been discovered that “everything causes everything else” and that each event emerges out of an infinite web or network of causal relationships. Causality therefore remains an idealization that can never be put into absolute practice.

Neils Bohr, for example, stressed that quantum theory had revealed the essential indivisibility of nature while Heisenburg’s uncertainty principle indicated the extent to which an observer intervenes in the system he
observes. A contemporary physicist, John Wheeler, has expressed this new approach in particularly graphic terms: “We had this old idea, that there was a universe out there, and here is man, the observer, safely protected from the universe by a six-inch slab of plate glass. Now we learn from the quantum world that even to observe so minuscule an object as an electron we have to shatter the plate glass; we have to reach in there… So the old word observersimply has to be crossed off the books, and we must put in the new word participator. In this way we’ve come to realize that the universe is a participatory universe.

Quantum theory and relativity had a revolutionary effect upon this Newtonian approach, not only in transforming the formalism of physics but also changing the worldview that was associated with it. The worldview that we have all inherited from an outmoded physics still has a profound effect on our whole lives; it permeates our attitudes to society, government., and human relations and suggests that every adverse situation can be analyzed into an isolated “problem” with a corresponding solution or means of control. It is for such reasons that synchronicity can have such a profound effect on us, for it reaches beyond our intellectual defenses and shatters our faith in the tangibility of surfaces and the linear orders of time and nature.
While quantum theory has successfully challenged the exclusive nature of this (Newtonian) worldview, the loophole it offers is simply not enough to admit synchronicity. It is only when causality is pushed to the limit that it is discovered that the actual context in which everything that happens in our universe is in fact caused by everything else. Indeed the whole universe could be thought of as unfolding or expressing itself in its individual occurrences. It is within this global view that it becomes possible to accommodate synchronicities as meaningful events that emerge out of the heart of nature.

In building the bridge between mind and matter, the notion of causality must be bypassed in favor of transformations and unfoldings. Causality and synchronicity are not contradictory but are dual perceptions of the same underlying reality. In other words, synchronicities are manifestations, in mind and matter, of the unknown ground that underlies them both. In this way similar orders are found in both consciousness and in the structuring of matter. The parallelism between the objective and the subjective aspects of the universe do not so much arise through causal connections, or linear patterns in time, but out of underlying dynamics that are common to both. Synchronicities therefore introduce meaning and value, in an essential way, into nature. The meaningful patterns of the world, which transcend all our attempts to limit and encompass them, arise not so much through the mechanisms of external orders but through the unfolding of their own internal significance.

While science has an awesome power to predict and control, it is also clear that its essential fragmentation of nature is no longer able to address all the major problems that face the world today. Synchronicity, however, with its sensitivity to harmony and the indivisibility of consciousness, humanity, and nature at least opens up the possibility of a new approach. But again this does not mean making a choice to “adopt” synchronicity or to “replace” some of the approaches of science with those of synchronicity. Rather, by being perceptive to these issues it may be possible to move, in a creative way, in an entirely new direction…One step toward becoming more sensitive to the duality between these different worldviews is to begin to question the whole current order of science and to develop new ideas and theories that have a more holistic approach.

In the present century the ultimate level of nature appears to be that of space-time and the infinite energy of the quantum field. But there is no reason to suppose that the ground of reality lies there and that there may not be an uncountable number of yet more subtle levels to be discovered. Indeed both consciousness and matter may be discovered to evolve out of a common order where the processes of matter and the activity of information are two sides of one reality.

The real message of synchronicity, for the Western scientific viewpoint, is not to throw away all that is of value within the last five hundred years, but to be sensitive to new perspectives and to allow the mind its full creative potential. In this way it becomes possible to retain a subjective experience of nature and a sense of the meaning and interconnectedness of things without needing to reject the scientific approach. Synchronicity will appear very naturally to a mind that is constantly sensitive to change, for it reveals the overall patterns of nature of mind and provides a context in which events have their meaning.

Synchronicity has gradually been enfolded into an entirely new dimension; in place of a causal deterministic world, in which mind and matter are two separate substances, appears a universe of infinite subtlety that is much closer to a creative living organism than to a machine. Reality, in this way, is pictured as a limitless series of levels which extend to deeper and deeper subtleties and out of which the particular, explicate order of nature and the order of consciousness and life emerge. Synchronicities can therefore be thought of as an expression of this underlying movement, for they unfold as patterns of thoughts and arrangements of material processes which have a meaningful conjunction when taken together. Paradoxically,the nothingness of the ground state, out of which the universe is sustained, is both a vacuum and a plenum. It is a vacuum because, as in the everyday idea of empty space, matter is able to move through it without interruption. But it is also a plenum because it is infinitely full of energy. Indeed, the observable material universe is nothing more that the minor fluctuations upon this vast sea of energy. And, it should not be forgotten, just as this infinite energy is used in the generation of matter, so it is also available to mind, through the deeper ground of its source.

Why should synchronicity be considered as some isolated coincidence of mind and matter when the one underlying source is constantly giving birth to the universe at every eternal moment? An answer to these questions is given in the final chapter, where it is suggested that a fragmentation in the way the mind has come to perceive the orders of time, and the growth of the self with all its attachments, has blinded our perceptions to the basic creativity in the universe. While the source of all reality is an unconditional creativityit does appear thathuman society, and the individual within it, often operate in a fairly mechanical way so that they respond to new situations from relatively fixed positions and in uncreative ways. In other words, they appear to be trapped in structures and forms of their own making, such as the beliefs, goals, and values that have become so rigid that they are unable to move in the flexible and subtle ways that characterize the general order of the universe. Is it possible therefore for the creative source to permeate the life of the individual? By no longer sustaining the mechanical order of time and attachment can the division between mind and body, individual and society, and society and nature be healed and the whole order of consciousness transformed in a creative way? Is it possible that the balance of life on this planet may be restored and a deeper sense of meaning function within the individual and society?

Within each part is enfolded the whole, so that each element becomes a microcosm of the macrocosm. In this sense, the individual truly stands as an image of a wider reality, with all its complex orders… However, as this self becomes more rigidly identified with set structures and its the sequential order of becoming, it believes itself to be the only and true source of all progress and creativity…In operating from its fixed forms and relatively limited order, the self assumes itself to be the origin and sustainer of all things… In this way the self has fragmented itself from the general field of consciousness and has become blocked from creativity so that a synchronicity now appears to be a rare and isolated incident, rather than one aspect of the general order of time and unfoldment.

Synchronicities, epiphanies,peak, and mystical experiences are all cases in which creativity breaks through the barriers of the self and allows awareness to flood through the whole domain of consciousness. It is the human mind operating, for a moment, in its true order and extending throughout society and nature, moving through orders of increasing subtlety, reaching past the source of mind and matter into creativity itself.
Synchronicity gives us an image of what such a transformation may be like, for within the operation of its meaningful coincidences, time has its end and creativity dissolves and transcends all structures and distinction. Synchronicity is therefore an intimation of a much greater transformation. An intimation of a more creative life in which the self takes its proper place within consciousness.

Synchronicities have opened a window onto a creative source of infinite potential, the well-spring of the universe itself. They have shown how mind and matter are not distinct, separate aspects of nature but arise in a deeper order of reality.Synchronicities suggest that we can renew our contact with that creative and unconditioned source which is the origin not only of ourselves but all of reality. By dying to the self and its mechanical, reactive responses to nature, it becomes possible to engage in an active transformation and gain access to unlimited ranges of energy. In this way, body and consciousness, individual and society, mind and matter may come to achieve their unlimited potential.

TOP
THE PRIMER PROJECT
An activity of the Primer Group
Presenting
THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC SEMINAR ON WHOLENESS
http://www.newciv.org/ISSS_Primer/seminar.html

 


Copyright 1997, 2006  C. George Boeree

Bees and their endangered condition

February 13, 2013
The Bee Cause
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Bees are essential to our survival. They are pollinators of hundreds of different plants grown for food (such as nuts, peppers, tomatoes) as well as things we hold dear or that provide habitats for other species, like wild flowers. Yet bee populations have declined in many countries for a variety of complex reasons, including unsustainable farming practises and pesticide use. Don’t  think this matters? Just consider one thought without this “Humble Bumble Bee” All the flowers in your garden and much of the worlds food supply would simply disappear.

Intensive corporate farming that relies upon artificial means to sustain productivity, strains the natural systems, hence industries create unnatural means of propagation and pesticides that kill off much of the needed food for the other creatures that in indirect ways make the world balanced ecologically.  Balance is a simple concept, without ‘Balance’ everything tumbles down into chaos. The Bee is essential to the balance of our ecology as are many other small seemingly annoying creatures. At this present time Bees are dying off at an incredible rate, you can be sure if they did die off we would follow them into oblivion. SAVE THE BEE SAVE YOURSELF

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This Published paper gives a good overview of the effects pesticides and the like are having on Bees.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(1): e29268.
Published online 2012 January 3. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0029268
PMCID: PMC3250423

Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields

Abstract

Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments.

Introduction

Pollinator health is receiving increased attention as both managed pollinators (i.e. honey bees) and native pollinator populations decline worldwide [1][3]. Several causal mechanisms (including viral pathogens, parasitic mites and pesticides) have been proposed and investigated as contributing causes [4]. Pesticide exposure has received significant attention and recently-published analyses of pollen from managed bees located near agricultural environments demonstrated that many agricultural chemicals (including insecticides, miticides, fungicides and herbicides) are detectable in honey bee wax and pollen samples [5],[6]. Of the many compounds detected, the neo-nicotinoid group has arguably received the most attention. These compounds act as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists in insects, causing persistent excitation of these receptors and eventually death [7]. As a group, neonicotinoids possess several key attributes that have facilitated heavy adoption in both agricultural and urban environments, including low vertebrate toxicity [8] and the ability to be translocated by plants. Neonicotinoids are also persistent, offering the potential for a large window of activity. The half-lives of these compounds in aerobic soil conditions can vary widely, but are best measured in months (148–1,155 days for clothianidin) [8]. Among the largest single uses of these compounds is application to maize seed; production of maize for food, feed and ethanol production represents the largest single use of arable land in North America. Maize planting reached unprecedented levels in the US in 2010 (35.7 million hectares [9], and is expected to increase. Virtually all if the maize seed planted in North America (the lone exception being organic production = 0.2% of total acreage [9]) is coated with neonicotinoid insecticides. There are 2 major compounds used: clothianidin and thiamethoxam; the latter is metabolized to clothianidin in the insect. The current application rates for these compounds range from 0.25 to 1.25 mg/kernel. These compounds are highly toxic to honey bees: a single kernel contains several orders of magnitude of active ingredient more than the published LD50 values for honey bees (defined as the amount of material that will kill 50% of exposed individuals), which ranges from 22–44 ng/bee for clothianidin (contact toxicity) [8][10]. Maize seeds are typically planted at a rate ca. 12,500 kernels/hectare, making it essential that any potential routes for honey bee exposure to these compounds be quantified as thoroughly as possible. This study was initiated in response to reports of bee kills at Indiana apiaries in spring of 2010. These reports coincided with the peak period of maize planting in the area [11]. Results of analyses of these bees and pollen from the hives revealed that both clothianidin and thiamethoxam were present on dead bees and in pollen collected from a single hive. These compounds were also present in dead bees from other hives but not in bees from hives that did not show mortality. Also found was atrazine, a herbicide that is commonly used in maize production and is relatively non-toxic to honey bees [12].

These preliminary results prompted additional experiments to determine how honey bees may be gaining exposure to clothianidin and other pesticides commonly applied to either maize seed or to plants later in the season. We collected samples from a variety of potential exposure routes near agricultural fields and analyzed them to determine whether pesticides were present. We sampled soils, pollen (both collected by honey bees and directly from plants), dandelion flowers, and dead and healthy bees. We also examined waste products produced during the planting of treated seed. Sowing of maize seed in North America is accomplished using tractor-drawn planters that employ a forced air/vacuum system and a perforated disc to pick up individual seeds and drop them into the planting furrow at the selected spacing. Because maize kernels are treated with neonicotinoids and other compounds (usually fungicides) they do not flow readily and may stick to one another, causing uneven plant spacing. To remedy this, talc (a common mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate) is typically added to seed boxes to reduce friction and stickiness and ensure smooth flow of seed during planting. Much of the talc is exhausted during planting, either down with the seed or behind the planter and into the air using an exhaust fan. We sampled waste talc following planting to determine whether this material was contaminated with pesticides abraded from treated seeds. This waste is a mixture of the talc that has been in contact with treated maize kernels and minute pieces of the seeds themselves.

Results

Soil collected from areas near our test site revealed that neonicotinoid insecticide residues were present in all samples tested (Table 1), with clothianidin occurring in each field sampled. Herbicide residues were also found in these samples. Sampling of the waste talc from planting activities revealed that extremely high concentrations of clothianidin were found in talc exposed to treated seed (Table 2). Fungicides applied to the seed were also found. Analysis of talc used to plant untreated seed contained low quantities of the same pesticides, this is likely due to contamination and reflects the difficulties associated with thorough cleaning of equipment between plantings. Direct sampling of anthers revealed that many of the same compounds were present in maize grown from treated seed, albeit in far lower concentrations (Table 3). Collection of pollen from traps in the field demonstrated that thiamethoxam was present in 3 of 20 samples, while pollen containing clothianidin was present in 10 of 20 samples (Table 4). Fungicides were also frequently detected: azoxystrobin and propiconazole were found in all pollen samples, while trifloxystrobin was found in 12 of the 20 samples analyzed. Maize pollen was frequently collected by foraging honey bees while it was available: maize pollen comprised over 50% of the pollen collected by bees, by volume, in 10 of 20 samples.

Table 1

Pesticide concentrations found in soil samples taken from production fields surrounding study area, all concentrations shown are expressed as parts per billion.1,2
Table 2

Pesticide concentrations found in talc samples removed from planter following planting with treated and untreated maize seed, all concentrations shown are expressed as parts per million.1,2
Table 3

Pesticide concentrations found in pollen removed from maize anthers at anthesis. Samples were taken from the experimental field where hives were placed. All concentrations shown are expressed as parts per billion.1
Table 4

Pesticide concentrations found in pollen samples removed from returning foragers of hives placed adjacent to maize fields at planting, all concentrations shown are expressed as parts per billion.1

The samples collected in 2011 revealed some similar trends (Table 5); clothianidin was found on all the dead and dying bees we sampled, while the apparently healthy bees we sampled from the same locations did not contain detectable levels of clothianidin. Atrazine and metolachlor were also found, providing further evidence that these bees were foraging near agricultural fields; as these herbicides are commonly applied prior to or during maize planting. When we sampled the contents of wax combs removed from two hives at the same apiary, we found both clothianidin and thiamethoxam in pollen removed from both hives. Nectar did not contain either compound. The miticide coumaphos was found at low levels in each nectar and pollen sample as well. Both soil and dandelion flowers obtained from the fields closest to the affected apiary (soybeans in 2010, unplanted when sampled in 2011) contained clothianidin (Table 6), therefore clothianidin in/on the dandelions could have resulted from translocation from the soil to the flower, from surface contamination of the flowers from dust, or a combination of these two mechanisms. Dandelion flowers growing far from agricultural areas served as controls; no neonicotinoids were detected.

Table 5

Pesticide concentrations found in/near apiary colonies during planting period in 2011, all concentrations shown are expressed as parts per billion.1
Table 6

Pesticide concentrations found in unplanted fields near apiary during planting period in 2011, all concentrations shown are expressed as parts per billion.1

Discussion

The results we present here more clearly define some potential intersections between foraging honey bees and some of the seed treatments used during planting of maize. These results demonstrate that honey bees living and foraging near agricultural fields are exposed to neonicotinoids and other pesticides through multiple mechanisms throughout the spring and summer. The potential for greatest exposure (and the period when mortality was noted), occurs during planting time when there is potential for exposure to extremely high concentrations of neonicotinoids in waste talc that is exhausted to the environment during and after planting. Furthermore, we show that bees living in these environments will forage for maize pollen and transport pollen containing neonicotinoids to the hive. Pollen contaminated with levels of neonicotinoids similar to those shown in our results has been known to impair pollinator health [13][14][15]. Although we anticipated that planter dust may cause higher pesticide concentrations in samples taken immediately after planting our plots, we found the opposite trend: Pollen collected just prior to our planting period contained the highest levels of neonicotinoids detected (and not detected) in samples from both the treated and untreated fields. This may reflect the high variability in the types of pollen being brought back to the hive. Most of the maize in our study area was shedding pollen before and during our atypically late planting period (mid-July). After sampling anthers directly and identifying maize pollen in our samples, we know that pollen originating from treated seed does contain clothianidin, although not at the levels found in some of the bee-collected pollen samples, indicating the likelihood of additional pathways or sources. The levels of clothianidin in bee-collected pollen that we found are approximately 10-fold higher than reported from experiments conducted in canola grown from clothianidin-treated seed [16].

Detection of agricultural pesticides (and neonicotinoids in particular) in hives (including honey, pollen and wax) has been documented in the past: Bee-collected pollen was found to contain the neonicotinoid imidacloprid [17] in one study, although no adverse effects upon adults or brood were found [18]. However, a more recent study found that rearing brood in comb contaminated with pesticides (including the neonicotinoids found in our study, thiamethoxam and clothianidin) led to delayed worker development [6]. A field study examining the effects upon honey bees of clothianidin-treated canola found low levels of clothianidin in both pollen and nectar (0.93ppb and 2.59 ppb, respectively), but also found no significant effects upon honey bee populations [16]. In studies in maize, guttation droplets produced by plants grown from neonicotinoid treated seed were shown to have from 10–100 mg/L of the pesticides and were found to cause paralysis and eventual death when fed to honey bees [19], while other studies have found traces of the seed treatment imidacloprid on vegetation near maize plantings and have hypothesized that sowing treated seed can cause dispersal of dust containing insecticide [20]. Further evidence of detrimental effects of planting treated maize seed was noted by researchers in Italy, who found that honey bee mortality increased on the day seeds were planted and that numbers of foragers declined in the days following planting [21]. A subsequent study demonstrated that bees that were induced to fly near a maize planter in Europe showed up to 100 ng of clothianidin/bee upon analysis. Interestingly, however, these bees did not die unless they were kept in conditions of high humidity [22].

Detection of clothianidin in pollen, both in stored pollen in cells and in pollen traps is a critical finding because clothianidin is even more toxic when administered to bees orally, with an LD50 of 2.8–3.7 ng/bee[23][24]. Given an average weight of 80–100 mg/bee, some of our pollen sample concentrations exceed the oral LD50. This, combined with the result that our samples of dead and dying honey bees consistently demonstrated the presence of clothianidin, suggests that the levels of both clothianidin and thiamethoxam found in our sampling of stored pollen in May of 2011 may have contributed to the deaths of the bees we analyzed. However, our analytical methods do not allow us to determine what fraction of the pesticide is on the surface of bees (contact toxicity, due to drift of soil or planter exhaust) vs. inside the body (oral toxicity, due to ingestion of contaminated pollen or guttation droplets). A combination of these exposure modalities is not unlikely.

Our results also demonstrate that clothianidin is present in the surface soil of agricultural fields long after treated seed has been planted in that field. All soil samples we collected contained clothianidin, even in cases where no treated seed had been planted for 2 growing seasons. During the spring planting period, dust that arises from this soil may land on flowers frequented by bees, or possibly on the insects themselves. Of potentially greater concern are the very high levels of neonicotinoids (and fungicides) found in the talc that has been exposed to treated seed, since part of this highly mobile material is exhausted to the outside environment during planting and after planting. The large areas being planted with neonicotinoid treated seeds, combined with the high persistence of these materials and the mobility of disturbed soil and talc dust, carry potential for effects over an area that may exceed the boundaries of the production fields themselves. A key mechanism for honey bee exposure may occur during the period when maize is typically planted across much of the Midwest (mid-April through early May). At this time, the energetic requirements of honey bee colonies are increasing rapidly and pollen and nectar resources are being gathered for colony growth. Talc and soil dusts from planting are mobile and have the potential to contaminate any flowering plants that are commonly found in or near agricultural fields and are visited by honey bees, including dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), which has been shown to be a preferred pollen and nectar source for honey bees during this period, when floral resources are relatively limited [25].

Later in the season, when planting is largely complete, we found that honey bees will collect maize pollen that contains translocated neonicotinoids and other pesticides from seed. Translocation of neonicotinoids into pollen has previously been reported for maize grown from imidacloprid-treated seed [26], although the degree to which honey bees in our study gathered maize pollen was surprising. The finding that bee-collected pollen contained neonicotinoids is of particular concern because of the risks to newly-emerged nurse bees, which must feed upon pollen reserves in the hive immediately following emergence. Pollen is the primary source of protein for honey bees, and is fed to larvae by nurse bees in the form of royal jelly. A bee will consume 65 mg of pollen during the 10 day period it spends as a nurse bee [27], therefore a concentration of 20 ng/g (ppb) in pollen would correspond to a dose of 1.3 ng (65 mg×20 ng/g) or almost 50% of the oral LD50 of ca. 2.8 ng/bee [23]. Some of our pollen concentrations were even higher, although it is important to note that LD50 is measured as a one-time dose, while exposure through contaminated pollen would be spread out over the 10 d period and that there is likely substantial metabolic decay of the compounds during this time. Lethal levels of insecticides in pollen are an obvious concern, but sublethal levels are also worthy of study as even slight behavioral effects may impact how affected bees carry out important tasks such as brood rearing, orientation and communication.

Also potentially important are the three fungicides found in bee-collected pollen samples (trifloxystrobin and azoxystrobin and propiconazole). Azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin are frequently used in maize seed treatments as protectants and all three of these compounds are also widely applied to maize in North America, even in the absence of disease symptoms [28]. These compounds are typically applied using aerial application during anthesis. Propiconazole has been shown to synergize toxicity of some neonicotinoids (thiacloprid and acetamiprid) to honey bees in the laboratory, although the same results have not been shown in field studies [10][29]. Although these fungicides are not acutely toxic to honey bees [5], the fact that they are routinely applied to areas that bees will frequent (i.e. maize plants at anthesis) coupled with the difficulties and uncertainties in assessing the toxicity of pesticide mixtures[30], indicate that they should be considered in future work.

In evaluating our results, it is important to bear in mind that toxicity is only one variable in addressing pesticide risks to pollinators – the intersection between toxicity and exposure is key in determining how much risk is posed by a toxicant to a given organism. These components are assessed by regulators in developing a “risk cup” which combines these parameters to assess the cumulative risks of a given toxicant to an organism [31]. In the case of honey bees, the toxicity of the neonicotinoid seed treatments used for large acreage field crops has been well-established [14][31], although when assessing the overall threat to posed to honey bee populations, calculations are complicated even further by the observation that sublethal doses of insecticides can weaken bees and increase susceptibility to key parasites or pathogens [32].

Because we found these compounds in pollen, oral LD50 is a relevant parameter in discussing toxicity to honey bees. In terms of acute toxicity (based on the oral LD50 of 2.8 ng/bee [23]), the amount of clothianidin on a single maize seed at the rate of 0.5 mg/kernel contains enough active ingredient to kill over 80,000 honey bees. However, the overall level of risk has been more difficult to quantify, as there has not been a clear mechanism whereby honey bees could be exposed to high levels of these compounds – once the treated seed is planted, opportunities for honey bee exposure to concentrations of neonicotinoids over a wide area should drop dramatically (although see [19]). Our results suggest that of the factors we quantified in this study, used talc exhausted during and after planting (the latter would occur during routine cleaning of planting equipment) stands out as potential routes for exposure that should be prioritized for further quantification and remediation. A recently published review of the risks posed by planting treated seeds in the E.U. estimates that measures taken there may reduce the dust generated during planting by 99% [33]. In North America, different planting equipment is used and there are currently no guidelines for disposal of waste talc, nor are there devices for filtering exhaust material from the vacuum planting systems. Producers may be largely unaware that this material is highly toxic to pollinators. However, given the unprecedented levels of maize production across the United States, coupled with the increasing adoption of neonicotinoid seed treatments in other annual crops covering a wide area, including soybeans (31.3 million ha), wheat (24.7 million ha), and cotton (4.4 million ha, all figures 2010 planting) [9], it is clear that this material presents a risk that is worthy of further investigation and possibly corrective action.

Our findings have implications both for honey bees located near these crops year-round, but also for migratory colonies (bees used to pollinate winter-flowering specialty crops in western North America, such as almonds and other fruit and nut crops). Many of these colonies reside in areas where treated seed is used extensively (i.e. the upper Midwestern United States) during the period from early spring through late fall. During this period, these bees forage on a variety of crops that may be planted using neonicotinoid treated seed, including maize, soybeans and canola. Although our study was confined to honey bees, these results are relevant for any pollinators that forage in or near agricultural fields, both in the crop itself or on other flowering plants (i.e. weeds) that are present in or near the field.

Materials and Methods

Ethics statement

No specific permits were required for the described field studies. All studies were performed at a Purdue Agricultural Center, which is comprised of agricultural land that is owned and maintained by Purdue University specifically for research trials. All products used during maize planting (seed, herbicides, fertilizer etc.) were registered for legal use and were applied in accordance with label guidelines. These field studies did not involve endangered or protected species.

We based our study design upon planting practices, which helped us to identify several risk factors: during maize planting, tractor movement and wind generate large quantities of dust (i.e. disturbed soil) that may land directly on bees and/or the flowers that they visit, making this dust one potential route of exposure for foraging bees.

Sample preparation and chemical analysis

All samples were analyzed using a modified version of the QuECHeRs protocol [34]. The pesticides were extracted from the matrix (i.e. soil, talc or pollen) by agitation with water, acetonitrile and the salts magnesium sulfate and sodium acetate. After centrifuging, a portion of the supernatant acetonitrile layer containing the pesticides was further cleaned by the addition of solid phase dispersants (primary secondary amine, magnesium sulfate, C-18 silica). An aliquot of solvent was then concentrated and analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry utilizing an Agilent 1200 LC interfaced to a Thermo –LTQ mass spectrometer. The MS was operated in a positive electrospray mode with a separate MS/MS scan function utilized for each pesticide monitored. This analytical technique provides both qualitative (retention time and mass spectra) and quantitative information. The combined techniques allow the various pesticides to be unambiguously identified at the parts per billion concentration level.

Pollen identification

A portion of each pollen sample from 2010 experiments was used to count and identify the types of pollen collected by the bees. The identification of maize pollen was accomplished using comparisons to reference slides prepared from maize pollen in our study area. The other pollen types were identified using comparisons to online images (www.polleninfo.org). The four pollen types identified were maize (Zea mays), common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), plantain (Plantago spp.) and goldenrod (Solidagospp.). To estimate the proportion of maize pollen present, a subsample of pollen suspended in water was pipetted onto a disposable hemacytometer (DRM-700 Cell-VU CBC) and the pollen grains were counted. Fresh maize pollen grains are prolate spheroidal in shape [35]. The maize pollen volume was estimated measuring the principal diameters of five individual grains from each subsample, resulting in an average volume for each maize pollen grain of 3.69×10−4 mm3.

Field experiment design, planting and sample collection methods

Our experimental field was surrounded by fields that had been planted with maize and soybeans. We sampled soil collected from the experimental field and each of the adjacent fields. Soil samples of 500 cc were taken at four equidistant locations within each field on July 7, 2010. Because we were most interested in the content of dust that may arise from disturbed soil, we confined our sampling to the top 2–3 cm of soil. The soil samples from each field were pooled and mixed prior to analysis. A 500 cc sample of soil was taken from each pooled sample for chemical analysis. On July 8 2010, we placed 8 hives surrounding an unplanted field in an area of long-term maize and soybean planting. The field dimensions were approximately 142 m wide by 148 m long. This area was divided in half, and the hives were then arranged such that each field half had a hive in the center of each border. Hive entrances faced the field interior. Pollen traps (Model #M00682, Dadant and Sons, Inc. M. Hamilton, IL) were placed in the entrances of each hive and pollen samples collected daily both before and after the field was planted. Samples were labeled and stored at −10°C prior to analysis. Hives were selected for approximately equal populations. Each hive contained about 20,000 to 30,000 bees. This level of stocking is much lower than other apiaries that are kept closer to Purdue University, and not expected to result in excessive competition for resources. However, honey bees will forage up to several kilometers if necessary and individual hives will vary in their foraging needs and resource preferences. We chose this number of hives to give an adequate sampling of the agricultural fields in which they were placed, without the expectation that they would forage primarily in the experimental field.

On July 12 2010, we planted half of the field with commercial maize seed treated with 1.25 mg/kernel of clothianidin, adding talc to each seed box at the recommended rate (approx. 240 cc talc/75 kg of maize seed) [36]. Because untreated maize seed was not available commercially, we used maize harvested the previous year to plant the other half of the field. Talc was added to this seed at the same rate as above. Fields were planted using a 6-row John Deere 7200 MaxEmerge planter. Collection of waste talc for analysis was performed following planting by manually removing approximately 50 g of talc from the manifold of the planter vacuum system. The planter and vacuum system was exhausted thoroughly and cleaned with compressed air prior to each planting and following each collection at a location far from the experimental fields. Samples of fresh pollen from maize anthers were taken by removing the entire tassel from approximately 100 plants in the field while pollen was being shed. Samples were vigorously shaken into paper bags. The resulting mixture of pollen and anthers was spread over paper towels. Anthers and other large debris were removed so that only pollen grains remained for analysis.

2011 sampling

During the spring of 2011, we again received reports of dead and dying bees at a local apiary, located in a small wooded area near maize and soybean production fields in northwestern Indiana. As in 2010, these reports coincided with local planting and tillage activities. We collected bees from the entrances of several hives on May 10th and 12th, 2011. We also collected apparently healthy returning foragers from hives at the same apiary. We removed frames containing nectar and pollen from two colonies at this location: one frame was taken from a hive with dead bees near its entrance, the second frame was removed from a nearby hive without any dead bees visible. Pollen and nectar from these frames was removed from cells for analysis, and two separate analyses of pollen samples were conducted. Finally, we collected samples of surface soil (using the methods outlined above) and dandelion flowers (multiple areas sampled, approximately 7–10 flowers were collected/sample) from maize fields within 2 km of this apiary that were being planted at the time of our bee collections.

We also collected additional waste talc samples in 2011, using commercially available neonicotinoid treated maize seed from several different manufacturers. Because our goal was to develop a representative sample from a variety of maize hybrids used in our research area, all hybrids were selected based upon agronomic suitability for local planting. Both clothianidin and thiamethoxam treated seed was used, at application rates ranging from 0.25 mg/kernel to 1.25 mg/kernel. Talc was added to each seed box at the recommended rate (approx. 240 cc talc/75 kg of maize seed) (36). Fields were planted using a 6-row John Deere 7200 MaxEmerge planter. Collection of waste talc for analysis was performed following planting by manually removing approximately 50 g of talc from the manifold of the planter vacuum system using a scoopula. The planter and vacuum system was exhausted thoroughly and cleaned with compressed air prior to each planting and following each collection.

Acknowledgments

We appreciate the comments of anonymous reviewers whose thoughtful and thorough reviews helped improve the manuscript. We thank Alexzandra Murphy, who assisted with collation of background literature. Caitlin Race, Madeline Spigler and Nicole Parker assisted with colony maintenance and sample collection. We are also grateful for the assistance of Peter Illingworth and Larry Bledsoe who aided in planting of fields.

Footnotes

Competing Interests: CK has received funding in the past from agrochemical companies that manufacture and distribute a wide range of pesticides, including many of those mentioned in this manuscript. These entities include the Bayer Corporation, BASF and Syngenta. None of these entities were involved with this work or are aware of it in any way, financial or otherwise. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLoS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Funding: This research was funded by an award from the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign to CK, GH and BE and by an award from the Managed Pollinator Coordinated Agricultural Project (United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture 2009-8511805718) to GH. The funders had no role in study design, data collection or analysis, decision to publish or manuscript preparation.

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19. Girolami V, Mazzon L, Squartini A, Mori N, Marzaro M, et al. Translocation of neonicotinoid insecticides from coated seeds to guttation drops: a novel way of intoxication for bees. J Econ Entomol.2009;102:1808–1815. [PubMed]
20. Greatti M, Barbattini R, Stravisi A, Sabatini AG, Rossi S. Presence of the a.i. imidacloprid on vegetation near corn fields sown with Gaucho dressed seeds. Bull Insectol. 2006;59:99–103.
21. Tremolada P, Mazzoleni M, Saliu F, Colombo M, Vighi M. Field trial for evaluating the effects on honey bees of corn sown using Cruiser and Celest xl treated seeds. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol.2010;85:229–234. [PubMed]
22. Girolami V, Marzaro M, Vivan L, Mazzon L, Greatti M, et al. Fatal powdering of bees in flight with particulates of neonicotinoids seed coating and humidity implication. 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2011.01648.x.
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Articles from PLoS ONE are provided here courtesy of Public Library of Science

The Lucifer project and the Vatican

February 11, 2013

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Top Vatican Astronomer Guy Consolmagno stated how contemporary societies may soon “look to The Aliens to be the Saviours of humankind.”

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Other heavenly beings come up several times in the Psalms. For example, look at the beautiful passage in Psalm 89 that calls out, “Let the heavens praise your wonders, 0 Lord, your faithfulness in the assembly of the holy ones. For who in the skies can be compared to the Lord? Who among the heavenly beings is like the Lord? … The heavens are yours, the earth also is yours; the world and all that is in it -you have founded them.” Likewise, God asks Job (38:7) if any human can claim to have been around at the creation, “when the morning stars sang together and all the heavenly beings shouted for joy .”

Are these “heavens,” “holy ones,” those “in the sky,” the “morning stars … and heavenly beings” more references to angels? Or do they refer to some other kind of life beyond our knowledge?

…And these are not the only non-human intelligent creatures mentioned in the Bible. There’s that odd, and mysterious, passage at the beginning of Genesis, Chapter 6, that describes the “sons of God” taking human wives. With it is a frustratingly oblique reference to “The Nephilim …the heroes that were of old, warriors of renown .”

Most Biblical scholars suggest that the Nephelim and the Sons of God in Genesis can be explained away as a left-over reference to the creation stories of the pagans who surrounded ancient Israel, that they were written by the kind of people whose culture saw anyone Not Of My Tribe as being unspeakably alien. Likewise, the references to heavens and stars singing and praising the Lord can be seen simply for the beautiful poetry that it is.

But whether you interpret these creatures as angels or aliens doesn’t really matter for the sake of our argument here. The point is that the ancient writers of the Bible, like all ancient peoples, were perfectly happy with the possibility that other intelligent beings could exist.

Read that again, then ask yourself: Did the Vatican’s top astronomer actually mean to use the story of the Nephilim from the Bible as an example of the kind of “space saviors” man could soon look to for salvation? This incredible assertion is only topped by what he says next. In quoting John 10:16, which says, “And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd,” Consolmago writes: “Perhaps it’s not so far-fetched to see the Second Person of the Trinity, the Word, Who was present “In the beginning” (John 1: l), coming to lay down His life and take it up again (John 10: 18) not only as the Son of Man but also as a Child of other races?” 

Do Vatican scholars actually believe Jesus might have been the Star-Child of an alien race? Does Consolmagno and/or other Jesuits secretly hold that the “Virgin Birth” was in reality an abduction scenario in which Mary was impregnated by ET, giving birth to the hybrid Jesus? As incredible as that sounds, you should prepare for the unexpected answer as this series unfolds.

All this would seem impossible theology if not for the fact that other high ranking Vatican spokespersons—those who routinely study from the “Star Base” (as local Indians call it) on Mt. Graham—have been saying the same in recent years. This includes Dr. Christopher Corbally, Vice Director for the Vatican Observatory Research Group on Mt. Graham until 2012, who believes our image of God will have to change if disclosure of alien life is soon revealed by scientists (including the need to evolve from the concept of an “anthropocentric” God into a “broader entity”),  and the current Vatican Observatory director, Father Josè Funes who has gone equally far, suggesting that alien life not only exists in the universe and is “our brother” but will, when manifested, confirm the “true” faith of Christianity and the dominion of Rome. When the L’Osservatore Romano newspaper (which publishes nothing that the Vatican doesn’t approve) asked him what this meant, he replied: “How can we rule out that life may have developed elsewhere? Just as we consider earthly creatures as ‘a brother,’ and ‘sister,’ why should we not talk about an ‘extraterrestrial brother’? It would still be part of creation” and believing in the existence of such is not contradictory to Catholic doctrine. 

 

 

Such statements are but the latest in a string of recent comments by numerous Vatican astronomers confirming a growing belief (or inside knowledge?) that disclosure will be made in the near future of alien life, including intelligent life, and that this encounter will not challenge the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.

From the 70s through the 90s, it was Monsignor Corrado Balducci—an exorcist, theologian and member of the Vatican Curia (governing body at Rome) and friend of the Pope—who went perhaps furthest, appearing on Italian national television numerous times to state that ETs were not only possible but already interacting with Earth and that the Vatican’s leaders were aware of it. Furthermore, speaking as an official demonologist, he said that extraterrestrial encounters, “are not demonic, they are not due to psychological impairment, and they are not a case of entity attachment, but these encounters deserve to be studied carefully.” He even disclosed how the Vatican itself has been closely following the phenomenon and quietly compiling material evidence from Vatican embassies (Nunciatures) around the world on the extraterrestrials and their mission [later in this research we will disclose the secret alien files the Vatican has been collecting since the 1950s].  For example, at a forum concerning the enormous UFO flap in Mexico, he stated, “I always wish to be the spokesman for these star peoples who also are part of God’s glory, and I will continue to bring it to the attention of the Holy Mother Church.”  Whatever you make of his claims, Balducci was a member of a special group of consultants to the Vatican, a public spokesperson for Rome on the matter of extraterrestrial life as well as UFO and abduction phenomenon, and his assertions have never been contradicted by the Church.

Still, perhaps most intriguing was Catholic theologian Father Malachi Martin who, before his death in 1999, hinted at something like imminent extraterrestrial contact more than once. While on Coast to Coast AM radio in 1997, Art Bell asked Martin why the Vatican was heavily invested in the study of deep space at the Mt Graham Observatory we visited. As a retired professor of the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Martin was uniquely qualified to hold in secret information pertaining to VATT. Martin’s answer ignited a firestorm of interest among Christian and secular UFOlogists when he replied, “Because the mentality…amongst those who [are] at the…highest levels of Vatican administration and geopolitics, know…what’s going on in space, and what’s approaching us, could be of great import in the next five years, ten years” (emphasis added). Image

Those cryptic words “what’s approaching us, could be of great import” was followed in subsequent interviews with discussion of a mysterious “sign in the sky” that Malachi believed was approaching from the north. While this could have been an oblique reference to an end time portent, the Catholic prophecy of the Great Comet, people familiar with Malachi believe he may have been referring to a near-future arrival of alien intelligence. (Interesting note from the authors: When we asked Father Guy Consolmagno what he thought of Malachi’s claims, he seemed actually miffed by the man, saying, “I have heard stories about the late Malachi Martin which make me rather suspicious of statements that come from him. I was at the Observatory in the 1990s, and he never visited us nor had anything to do with us.” This reaction seems consistent with how many other Catholic priests despised Malachi’s willingness to disclose what Rome otherwise wanted buried, especially the Satanic cabal within the Jesuit order Malachi wrote about in his best-selling books.)

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Yet, if ET life is something Vatican officials have privately considered for some time, why speak of it so openly now, in what some perceive as a careful, doctrinal unveiling over the last few years? Is this a deliberate effort by church officials to “warm-up” the laity to ET disclosure? Are official church publications on the subject an attempt to soften the blow before disclosure arrives, in order to help the faithful retain their orthodoxy in light of unprecedented forthcoming knowledge?

Writing for Newsweek on Thursday, May 15, 2008, in the article “The Vatican and Little Green Men,” Sharon Begley noted that “[this] might be part of a push to demonstrate the Vatican’s embrace of science… Interestingly, the Vatican has plans to host a conference in Rome next spring to mark the 150th anniversary of the Origin of Species, Charles Darwin’s seminal work on the theory of evolution. Conference organizers say it will look beyond entrenched ideological positions—including misconstrued creationism. The Vatican says it wants to reconsider the problem of evolution ‘with a broader perspective’ and says an ‘appropriate consideration is needed more than ever before.’

The “appropriate consideration” Begley mentioned may have been something alluded to by Guy Consolmagno three years earlier in an interview with the Sunday Herald. That article pointed out how Consolmagno’s job included reconciling “the wildest reaches of science fiction with the flint-eyed dogma of the Holy See” and that his latest mental meander was about “the Jesus Seed,” described as “a brain-warping theory which speculates that, perhaps, every planet that harbours intelligent, self-aware life may also have had a Christ walk across its methane seas, just as Jesus did here on Earth in Galilee. The salvation of the Betelguesians may have happened simultaneously with the salvation of the Earthlings.” This sounds like a sanctified version of panspermia—the idea that life on Earth was “seeded” by something a long time ago such as an asteroid impact—but in this case, “the seed” was divinely appointed and reconciled to Christ.

The curious connection between the Vatican’s spokespersons and the question of extraterrestrials and salvation was further hinted in the May, 2008 L’Osservatore Romano interview with Father Funes, titled, “The Extraterrestrial is My Brother.” In the English translation of the Italian feature, Funes responds to the question of whether extraterrestrials would need to be redeemed, which he believes should not be assumed. “God was made man in Jesus to save us,” he says. “If other intelligent beings exist, it is not said that they would have need of redemption. They could remain in full friendship with their Creator.” 

By “full friendship,” Funes reflected how some Vatican theologians accept the possibility that an extraterrestrial species may exist that is morally superior to men—closer to God than we fallen humans are—and that, as a consequence, they may come here to evangelize us. Father Guy Consolmagno took up this same line of thinking when he wrote in his book, Brother Astronomer: Adventures of a Vatican Scientist:

 

So the question of whether or not one should evangelize is really a moot point. Any alien we find will learn and change from contact with us, just as we will learn and change from contact with them. It’s inevitable. And they’ll be evangelizing us, too.

 

But hold on, as this disturbing rabbit hole goes much deeper…

In a paper for the Interdisciplinary Encyclopedia of Religion and Science, Father Giuseppe Tanzella-Nitti—an Opus Dei theologian of the Pontifical University of the Holy Cross in Rome—explains just how we could actually be evangelized during contact with “spiritual aliens,” as every believer in God would, he argues, greet an extraterrestrial civilization as an extraordinary experience and would be inclined to respect the alien and to recognize the common origin of our different species as originating from the same Creator. According to Giuseppe, this contact by non-terrestrial intelligence would then offer new possibilities “of better understanding the relationship between God and the whole of creation.”

Giuseppe states this would not immediately oblige the Christian “to renounce his own faith in God simply on the basis of the reception of new, unexpected information of a religious character from extraterrestrial civilizations,” but that such a renunciation could come soon after as the new “religious content” originating from outside the Earth is confirmed as reasonable and credible. “Once the trustworthiness of the information has been verified” the believer would have to “reconcile such new information with the truth that he or she already knows and believes on the basis of the revelation of the One and Triune God, conducting a re-reading [of the Gospel] inclusive of the new data…”  How this “more complete” ET Gospel might deemphasize or significantly modify our understanding of salvation through Jesus Christ is discussed in the exotheology section of our upcoming investigative book “ExoVaticana”, but former Vatican Observatory vice director, Christopher Corbally, in his article “What if There Were Other Inhabited Worlds” may have summarized the most important aspect when he concluded that Jesus simply might not remain the only Word of salvation: “I would try to explore the alien by letting ‘it’ be what it is, without rushing for a classification category, not even presuming two genders,” Corbally said, before dropping this bombshell:

 

While Christ is the First and the Last Word (the Alpha and the Omega) spoken to humanity, he is not necessarily the only word spoke to the universe… For, the Word spoken to us does not seem to exclude an equivalent “Word” spoken to aliens. They, too, could have had their “Logos-event”. Whatever that event might have been, it does not have to be a repeated death-and-resurrection, if we allow God more imagination than some religious thinkers seem to have had. For God, as omnipotent, is not restricted to one form of language, the human.

 

That high-ranking spokespersons for the Vatican have in recent years increasingly offered such language acknowledging the likelihood of extraterrestrial intelligence and the dramatic role ET’s introduction to human civilization could play in regard to altering established creeds about anthropology, philosophy, religion, and redemption is set to become more future-consequential than most are prepared for.

And then there is that LUCIFER device at Mt. Graham, which the Vatican denies being connected to but they naturally would. However there mention can be found from various sources. LUCIFER is curiously described on the Vatican Observatory website as “NASA AND THE VATICAN’S INFRARED TELESCOPE CALLED [LUCIFER]—A German built, NASA and The Vatican owned and funded Infrared Telescope… for looking at NIBIRU/NEMESIS.” 

 Why has the Vatican Observatory website allowed this caption to remain? Nibiru and Nemesis are hypothetical planets that supposedly return in orbit close to the earth after very long periods of time. They have been connected in modern myth with “Planet X” and most darkly with the destruction of planets that some believe occurred during a great war between God and Lucifer when the powerful angel was cast out of heaven. In the book of Job where the prophet details how God destroyed the literal dwelling places of the angels that made insurrection against Him (Job 26:11-13), it specifically mentions the destruction of Rahab, a planetary body also known as ‘Pride,’ from which God drove ‘the fugitive snake.’” Are Rome and other world powers using the LUCIFER device to observe something the rest of us cannot see—something they believe represents this ancient war (or worse, keeping eye on approaching end-times angelic transportation devices/UFOs, something Father Malachi Martin hinted at)? The latter theory is interesting in light of the demonic name of the infrared device. Infrared telescopes can detect objects too cool or far away and faint to be observed in visible light, such as distant planets, some nebulae and brown dwarf stars. Additionally, infrared radiation has longer wavelengths than visible light, which means it can pass through astronomical gas and dust without being scattered. Objects and areas obscured from view in the visible spectrum, including the center of the Milky Way, can thus be observed by LUCIFER’s infrared technology. But what UFO researchers have fascinated about for some time now is how infrared technology can also be used to spot and track Unidentified Flying Objects in the heavens that cannot be seen with other telescopes or the naked eye. In fact, some of the most astonishing UFOs ever caught on film have been recorded with infrared. What this has to do with the arrival of Petrus Romanus and especially the global leader he will celebrate is beyond disturbing and ultimately imminent. Now with the present Pope resigning this may well be interesting times.

Here is an interesting film showing deep space objects that have supposedly been found using amateur telescopes. It does make you wonder what deep field telescopes used by the Vatican can capture .

Deep space object

Interstellar – a Jose Escamilla film

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMBUcd6MX-I&feature=share&list=PL9472E6CF050F0643